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Aplicación del Reglamento Sanitario Internacional (2005) en las Américas Print E-mail

Aplicación del Reglamento Sanitario Internacional (2005) en las Américas: Situación a mayo del 2008

El Reglamento Sanitario Internacional (2005) [RSI (2005)] es un instrumento jurídico internacional vinculante para 194 países de todo el mundo, entre ellos todos los Estados Miembros de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Su propósito es brindar ayuda a la comunidad internacional para que pueda prevenir y responder a los riesgos graves para la salud pública que pueden potencialmente traspasar las fronteras y amenazar a las personas en todo el mundo. Esta es la primera revisión integral del Reglamento desde su adopción en 1969, iniciada en 1995 a raíz de la solicitud de los Estados Miembros de abordar su alcance estrecho (sólo se habían incluido tres enfermedades inicialmente), su dependencia de la notificación oficial de los países y su falta de un mecanismo coordinado mundialmente para contener la propagación internacional de las enfermedades.

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ESPII (Spa) Print E-mail

Evaluación de potenciales emergencias de salud pública de importancia internacional (ESPII) bajo el nuevo Reglamento Sanitario Internacional (2005)

Región de las Américas: enero 2007 a mayo 2008

El Reglamento Sanitario Internacional (RSI) es un instrumento jurídico internacional de carácter vinculante para 194 países, entre ellos todos los Estados Miembros de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Tiene por objeto ayudar a la comunidad internacional a prevenir y afrontar riesgos agudos de salud pública susceptibles de atravesar fronteras y amenazar a poblaciones de todo el mundo. El RSI está pensado para proteger la salud pública previniendo la diseminación de enfermedades con la menor interferencia posible en el tráfico y el comercio internacional.

 

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Editorial


This edition of PAHO’s Epidemiological Bulletin (EB) marks a new stage for this publication that began in 1980. It has been redesigned to be a more complete and interactive resource in applied epidemiology for the Americas region. For PAHO, it is essential to take advantage of available information technology in order to expand and facilitate access and dissemination to a larger audience. Beginning with this edition, the Bulletin will be available in electronic format on the PAHO/OPS web page and on various internet servers. At the same time, we will continue to improve the interactive site for all the Organization’s bulletins. In addition, users will also find free access to all the Bulletins in PDF format as well as other highly useful epidemiological information. The EB will be sent, electronically, to subscribers interested in receiving its full version, regularly. The subscription can be made, free of charge, on the website http://new.paho.org/bulletins/epi

Its focus will remain the same, yet through broader contents available in its newly designed web page, as well as a more flexible online format, it will provide access to a wider array of information from authoritative sources, on issues ranging from outbreak alerts to information on communicable and non communicable disease trends; from health analyses to information on activities and publications in the Region and the world. In essence, the design and content of the new Epidemiological Bulletin seeks to reflect some key characteristics of modern-day applied epidemiology: reactive to a fast-changing world, up-to-date with key technological tools, open to two-way communication, and inclusive of many other public health disciplines essential to its practice.

The renewal of the Epidemiological Bulletin happens at the most opportune of times. This September, the focus of the worldwide community of epidemiologists will be on the Americas, as the 2008 World Congress of Epidemiology takes place in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The theme of the meeting: “Epidemiology in the construction of health for all: tools for a changing world”, which echoes the key role of epidemiology in understanding and improving population health in the 21st century as well as in building more equitable health systems, is particularly befitting for the Region. A note in this issue provides more details about the meeting.

The central topic of this issue is the recent outbreak of Yellow Fever in Paraguay. This event is of particular significance because it highlights the resurgence of an outbreak of urban yellow fever in the Region after more than 65 years. This events strongly warns countries in the risk area for YF about the threat of similar outbreaks in the cities with presence of the vector Aedes aegypti. Furthermore, it requests the urgent need of strengthening surveillance systems suspect cases and epizooties; the rational use of the YF vaccine to protect the permanent population living in risk areas and the visitors related to the ecotourism, seasonal migration, and others; and the implementation of comprehensive vector control measures.

The new revised International Health Regulations (IHR (2005)), is also the topic of two articles. In the Americas, implementation of the IHR (2005) started voluntarily in 2006 in a majority of countries. Data on implementation, collected through a questionnaire designed by the World Health Organization (WHO), provides a picture of the progress made and needs still to be addressed, as shown in one of the articles. Through the IHR (2005), countries committed to notify WHO of any event that may result in an international public health emergency. The characteristics of the notification and the channels used in the Region since the start of the implementation are the subject of these articles. Finally, the PAHO presents this renewed Epidemiological Bulletin to the epidemiology and public health community in the Americas to serve as a tool to strengthen the surveillance, prevention and control of disease activities .

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Introducción

En América del Sur, históricamente el área endémica del virus de la fiebre amarilla (FA) ha comprendido las zonas tropicales y subtropicales de Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Guyana Francesa, Perú, Surinam y, Venezuela (1,2).

A partir de los finales de 2007, se desarrolló una extensa epizootia incluyendo una gran área ecológica compartida por Brasil, Paraguay y la Provincia de Misiones en el norte de Argentina, lo que redefinió el área enzoótica de la FA en América del Sur. En la figura 1 se pueden observar los sitios posibles de infección de los casos de FA desde el año 2000. De acuerdo con las normas emitidas por el nuevo Reglamento Sanitario Internacional (RSI 2005) (3), los acontecimientos epidemiológicos en Argentina y Brasil, y luego los de Paraguay, fueron reportados diariamente por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) a todos los puntos focales nacionales responsables para el RSI.

 

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1-Editorial Print E-mail

Editorial


This edition of PAHO’s Epidemiological Bulletin (EB) marks a new stage for this publication that began in 1980. It has been redesigned to be a more complete and interactive resource in applied epidemiology for the Americas region. For PAHO, it is essential to take advantage of available information technology in order to expand and facilitate access and dissemination to a larger audience. Beginning with this edition, the Bulletin will be available in electronic format on the PAHO/OPS web page and on various internet servers. At the same time, we will continue to improve the interactive site for all the Organization’s bulletins. In addition, users will also find free access to all the Bulletins in PDF format as well as other highly useful epidemiological information. The EB will be sent, electronically, to subscribers interested in receiving its full version, regularly. The subscription can be made, free of charge, on the website http://new.paho.org/bulletins/epi

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