Editor in Chief:Dr. Jarbas Barbosa da Silva
Editor:Dr. Patricia L. Ruiz
PAHO’s Epidemiological Bulletin is published quarterly in English and Spanish. Catalogued and indexed by the United States National Library of Medicine. ISSN 0256-1859.
This edition of PAHO’s Epidemiological Bulletin marks a new stage for this publication that began in 1980. It has been redesigned to be a more complete and interactive resource in epidemiology for the Americas region.
By R. Bonita, R. Beaglehole and T. Kjellström 2006, 220 pages [English] ISBN: 92 4 154707 3 ISBN: 978 92 4 154707 9 CHF 33.00/US$ 29.70 In developing countries: CHF 19.80/ US$ 17.85 Order no. 11502395
The second edition provides updated examples of how and why the basics of epidemiology are essential to anyone who is required to understand and apply the principles of disease causation and prevention. The book has a particular emphasis on modifiable environmental factors and encourages the application of epidemiology to the prevention of disease and the promotion of health, including environmental and occupational health. It prepares members of the health related professions to respond to the need for health services to address all aspects of the health of populations, and to ensure that health resources are used to the best possible effect. It shows how good clinical practice is informed by clinical epidemiology; and its lively, concise style is designed to stimulate a continuing interest in the subject.
It enables students to describe the common causes of death, disease, injury and disability in the community; outline appropriate study designs to answer specific questions concerning disease causation, natural history, prognosis, prevention, and the evaluation of therapy and other interventions to control disease, and critically evaluate the literature.
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In South America, the endemic area of yellow fever (YF) has historically included the tropics and sub-tropics of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, French Guiana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela (1,2).
At the end of 2007, an extensive epizootic developed, including a large ecological area shared by Brazil, Paraguay, and the Province of Misiones in northern Argentina, which redefined the YF enzootic area in South America. Figure 1 shows the possible infection sites for the YF cases since 2000. Following the new standards of the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) (3), epidemiological events in Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay have been reported daily by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) to all national focal points responsible for the IHR.
Region of the Americas: January 2007 to May 2008
The International Health Regulations (IHR) are a binding international legal instrument for 194 nations, among them, all the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO). Their purpose is to help the international community prevent and address serious public health risks likely to cross borders and threaten populations worldwide. The IHR have been designed to protect public health by preventing the spread of disease with the least possible disruption of international travel and trade.
The new International Health Regulations [IHR (2005)] went into force on 15 June 2007. The countries committed to notifying WHO of all events occurring in their territory that might constitute a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC). To this end, each country will assess events that occur in their territory using a decision tool and will notify WHO about the event and the health measures applied within no more than 24 hours of assessing the information of public health concern (*).
The XVIII International Epidemiology Association (IEA) World Congress of Epidemiology will be held on September 20- 24, 2008 in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The theme of the Congress, Epidemiology in the Construction of Health for All: Tools for a Changing World, encompasses many dimensions of the role of epidemiology in public health practice. It seeks to reflect the place of epidemiology as a cornerstone and building block in the “construction” of health; its role in the development, maintenance, and renovation of equitable health systems; and the essential tools it brings in the study of health and evaluation of services. The Congress will also put an emphasis on the 21st century challenges brought about by fundamental changes in the demographic, socioeconomic, environmental contexts and other challenges that affect health, with a particular attention to the notion of equity.Pre-Congress workshops and courses will include keynotes lectures and symposia by renowned epidemiologists from around the world on a wide range of topics.
Further information can be found at: http://www.epi2008.com.br/
The International Health Regulations (2005) [IHR (2005)] are an international legal instrument that is binding on 194 countries across the globe, including all the Member States of WHO. Their aim is to help the international community prevent and respond to acute public health risks that have the potential to cross borders and threaten people worldwide. Since the adoption of the IHR in 1969, this is the first comprehensive revision of the Regulations. The revision was launched in 1995 by request of Member States to address their narrow scope (only three diseases were initially included), their dependence on official country notification, and their lack of internationally coordinated mechanism to contain international disease spread.
The IHR (2005) require countries to report certain disease outbreaks and public health events to WHO. Building on the unique experience of WHO in global disease surveillance, alert and response, the IHR (2005) define the rights and obligations of countries to report public health events, and establish a number of procedures that WHO must follow in its work to uphold global public health security. They also require countries to strengthen their existing capacities for public health surveillance and response. WHO is working closely with countries and partners to provide technical guidance and support to mobilize the resources needed to implement the new rules in an effective and timely manner (1).
The Epidemiological Bulletin is published by the Area of Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control (HSD), Pan American Health Organization, Regional Office of the World Health Organization. Address: 525 Twenty-third Street, N.W., Washington, DC. 20037, U.S.A. Telephone: (202) 974.3855. Fax: (202) 974.3674. http://www.paho.org. The texts and the images can be reproduced freely provided that 1) the author/image is cited correctly; 2) the text is accompanied by the credit "Reprinted of the Epidemiological Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization. Pan American Health Organization, Regional Office of the World Health Organization". 3) A copy of the printed matter is sent to the editor. Some articles that appear in the Epidemiological Bulletin reflect the standpoints of the author and do not necessarily represent the official standpoint of PAHO/WHO.
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