The main causes of death among children under 5 years of age are acute respiratory infection (17%)
and diarrhoeal disease (16%), and children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
have greater morbidity and mortality related to these conditions (WHO, 2008). An estimated
2.1 million children in the world are living with HIV, 90% of whom live in sub-Saharan Africa.
The incidence of infection remains high, with 430 000 new HIV infections in children annually.
Almost one third of untreated infected nfants will die in the first year of life, and up to 50% by 2 years of age.
This study proposes methods for measuring inequalities in the distribution of health workers in a country by adapting techniques from the economics literature on income inequality to the measurement of health workforce distribution across geographical units. Calculations use three indices: the Theil L measure and the Theil T index (both of which are decomposable) and the Gini coefficient G which, though not decomposable, is the most well-known and extensively computed measure of inequality.
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