IHR/Epidemic Alert and Response and Water Borne Diseases
EOC Situation Report #21
Thursday, 11 June 2009
6:00 pm, EDT
- The World Health Organization raised its global pandemic alert level to Phase 6 today. This means that sustained community transmission of a new influenza virus has now been confirmed in more than one WHO region, and that a global pandemic is now officially declared. Read the Director General's statement to the press.
- It is important to note that the change in phase reflects geographical spread of the new influenza A (H1N1) virus, and not the severity of illness that it causes.
- At this time, WHO considers the overall severity of the influenza pandemic to be moderate. This assessment is based on scientific evidence available to WHO, as well as input from its Member States on the pandemic's impact on their health systems, and their social and economic functioning.
- Countries should prepare to see cases, or the further spread of cases, in the near future. Countries where outbreaks appear to have peaked should prepare for a second wave of infection.
- Guidance on specific protective and precautionary measures has been sent to ministries of health in all countries. Countries with no or only a few cases should remain vigilant.
- Countries with widespread transmission should focus on the appropriate management of patients. The testing and investigation of patients should be limited, as such measures are resource intensive and can very quickly strain capacities.
- WHO continues to recommend no restrictions on travel and no border closures.
- For the latest reports on the status of Influenza A(H1N1) in the Americas please check the daily epidemiological alerts available in the PAHO website.
- Guidance for national authorities.
- PAHO's influenza A (H1N1) portal.
- Pan American Health Organization website.
- World Health Organization website.
- For constant updates on the influenza A(H1N1) situation, check the PAHO and WHO channels in Twitter.
The PAHO/WHO Emergency Operations Center Situation Report will issue situation reports as the situation requires.
- Situation Report # 21, June 11 (PDF) - English - Spanish - French
- Situation Report # 20, May 22 (PDF) - English - Spanish - French
- Situation Report # 19, May 15 (PDF) - English - Spanish - French
- Situation Report # 18, May 12 (PDF) -English - Spanish - French
:: See the Cholera Epidemiological Alerts and Updates List
Technical Guidelines and Recommendations
:: Case Management and Vaccination
- Diagnosis of Vibrio cholerae (in Spanish)
- Search procedures for Vibrio cholerae in environmental samples (in Spanish)
- Procedures for identification of Vibrio cholerae in the microbiology laboratory (in Spanish)
- Manual of procedures for isolation, identification and characterization of Vibrio cholerae (in Spanish)
:: Outbreak Control in Complex Emergencies
- First steps for managing an outbreak of acute diarrhoea (WHO)
- Cholera outbreak: assessing the outbreak response and improving preparedness (WHO)
- Acute diarrhoeal diseases in complex emergencies: critical steps
- Cholera in Disasters Situations
- Management of Dead Bodies After Disasters (A Field Manual for First Responders) (PAHO, ICRC)
:: Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)
- WHO Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 2008
- Updated WHO/WEDC Technical Notes on WASH in Emergencies, 2013
- Sanitary Guidelines for Camps and Settlements, PAHO
- Excreta Disposal in Emergencies: A Field Manual, An Inter-Agency Publication, 2009 (via UNHCR)
- Guide for Monitoring and Controlling the Water Quality in Emergency and disaster Situations (in Spanish)