In 1994, an independent International Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (ICCPE), established by PAHO’s Director, certified the Region of the Americas polio-free. The Commission and most National Committees for Certification (NCC) dissolved shortly thereafter. Laboratory containment of wild poliovirus was not then an issue. In 1997, the newly established Global Commission for the Certification of the Eradication of Poliomyelitis (GCC) expressed concern that poliovirus stocks in laboratories could present a formidable threat to the ultimate success of eradication. In 1998, the GCC declared adequate containment a precondition for global certification. Certification of containment was included in the terms of reference for all Regional Commissions for Certification (RCC).