Essential Medicines and Biologicals
Medicines and Health Technologies
One of the principle determinants of access to essential medicines is price. Countries in the Region of the Americas face important challenges in medicines pricing including: lack of information and transparency in pricing; inappropriate price referencing in public procurement; weak regulatory frameworks (procurement, financing, intellectual property) that impact medicine price; fragmented strategies promoting generic medicine penetration in markets; and differential pricing policies that are not necessarily equity based. The issue of price is especially important when we consider that in some countries up to 50% of household expenditure in health is spent on medicines.
PAHO is approaching the issue of medicines price from the Economic Regulatory perspective, recognizing that a medicine price may be directly impacted by policy and regulatory frameworks within countries, developed and implemented by national governments.
Components of the Technical Cooperation ProgramAssessment of regulatory and policy frameworks impacting price: (download presentation)
- Recommendations from the Pan American Seminar on the Economic Regulation of Medicines (download document )
Assessment of prices (particularly HIV/AIDS, TB, and Malaria):
- Strategic Fund Pricing
- Historic publications on HIV/AIDS negotiations, including:
-Work of the GAN, Price Negotiations Outcomes
- "A multidisciplinary approach to scaling up HIV/AIDS treatment and care: the experience of the Bahamas," (Fitzgerald et al., 2005)
- "An Open Competition Model for Regional Price Negotiations Yields Lowest ARV Prices in the Americas" (Fitzgerald J, Gomez B, 2003)
Development and implementation of strategies to promote and rationalize Access to High Cost Medicines (download document)
Working Group to promote the establishment of Pricing Databases for transparency and referencing in public procurement (download terms of reference)
Implementation of medicines pricing studies using the WHO/HAI methodology
- medicines pricing studies: