Strategies include patient and provider education, efforts aimed at smoking cessation, increased physical activity, and healthy eating.
A number of clinically proven strategies are available for the secondary prevention of complications.
Cardiovascular disease: blood sugar control, blood pressure control, smoking cessation, aspirin treatment, lipid reduction treatment, rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors;
Nephropathy (Kidney damage): blood sugar control, blood pressure control, and medications including RAS inhibitors angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB, and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE);
Retinopathy: blood sugar control, blood pressure control, lipid reduction treatment;
Blindness: annual eye examinations, and prompt treatment of problems in order to minimize visual loss; this includes panretinal laser surgery for eyes with advanced proliferative retinopathy, and focal laser photocoagulation for eyes with clinically significant vision-threatening macular edema;
Amputations: foot exam and foot care education.