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Oral Health Program

Developmental Disorders

Active ImageDevelopmental disorders involve teeth and the craniofacial structures. Oftentimes, these are associated with genetic disorders affecting other parts of the body. Other times, they are due to developmental problems during birth. Thus, it is suggested that both genes and environmental factors play a role in these defects. The most common defect is the cleft lip and palate.

This section will provide information on many of the common developmental disorders in the LAC region, scientific literature and links to associations and foundations that are working to help those inflicted.

Introduction and Fact Sheets

International Collaborative Research on Craniofacial Anomalies

WHO. Introduction to Craniofacial Anomalies

Cleft Lip and Palate

NIH.  Brief introduction to Cleft Lip and Palate (also called Harelip).

El labio leporino (fisura labial) y el paladar hendido (fisura palatina)

The Nemours Foundation. Introducción incluyendo información sobre causas, complicaciones y tratamento.

Treacher Collins Syndrome, Crouzon Syndrome, Apert Syndrome, Stickler syndrome 

NIH Genetics Home Reference.  Introductory information these developmental disorders.

Global Strategies to Reduce the Health Care Burden of Craniofacial Anomalies: Report of WHO Meetings on International Collaborative Research on Craniofacial Anomalies  (57.19 kB) 

WHO, 2002. Discussion on potential of the global model for tackling the big questions in craniofacial anomalies, be they concerned with cause, treatment, or prevention.

Scientific and Technical Publications

Advice Given to Women in Argentina about Breast-feeding and the Use of Alcohol (90.72 kB)

Panamerican Journal of Public Health, 2004. Study demonstrating the need for professional development strategies that will address women’s awareness of the risks of alcohol consumption and alcohol usage.


Global Strategies to Reduce the Healthcare Burden of Craniofacial Anomalies (1.99 MB)  

WHO, 2002. Report of WHO meetings on International Collaborative Research on Craniofacial Anomalies Geneva, Switzerland, 5-8 November 2000 & Park City, Utah, USA, 24-26 May 2001. Findings from WHO five-year project designed to take forward an international research strategy on treatment, gene/environment interaction, genetics, and prevention of craniofacial anomalies.

University of Iowa Craniofacial Center Collaboratoy

The purpose of this site is to aid in disseminating information about research currently being conducted at The University of Iowa in the area of craniofacial anomalies.

Training Materials                                                               

Guidelines for Identifying and Referring Persons with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2005. Recommendations, referral considerations, services for people with FAS, alcohol during pregnancy. 

Additional Resources:

Sources - Database:

General Health Sicience: LILACS, MEDLINE /International Agencies:  PAHO- Pan American Health Organization, WHOLIS - World Health Organization / Cochrane Library: Cochrane systematic reiews, Protocols of Cochrane systematic reviews, CENTRAL, Abstracts by INAHTA, economic studies and critically appraised, abstracts of quality assessments / BBO -Brazilian Dentistry Bibliography  / MEDCARIB - Caribbean Health Sciences Literature / Bandolier / Ibero-American Clinical Trials, Evidence. Updating in ambulatory, Reports / HIL- Internet Resources.

Foundations and Centers:    

International Centre for Birth Defects (ICBD) is the coordinating centre of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS). The ICBD collects and analyses data from ICBDMS registries to systematically monitor congenital malformations.

Austin Smiles is a nonprofit 501(c)3 organization which provides reconstructive plastic surgery, primarily cleft lip and palate repairs, to the children of Austin and the 10 county area surrounding Austin and in various locations in Latin America.

The mission of CPF is to provide the essential information and research that enhances the quality of life for individuals affected by cleft lip and palate and other facial birth defects.

La Fundación del Paladar Hendido (CPF) es una organización sin fines de lucro dedicada a ayudar las personas con defectos de la cabeza y el cuello, y sus familias.

For  38 years, FACES: The National Craniofacial Association has been dedicated to assisting children and adults who have craniofacial disorders resulting from disease, accident, or birth.

Empowers and gives hope to individual and families with facial differences. 

The website for the Collaboration for Craniofacial Development and Disorders (CCDD) was created for families, physicians, and scientists. The mission is to care for patients, educate, and perform research on craniofacial disorders. Information is provided about services available at Johns Hopkins University and providers around the world.

Madisons Foundation is dedicated to improving the quality and quantity of information available to parents of children with rare, life-threatening diseases, and to facilitating effective communication among parents, physicians and medical experts.  

Oral Health, Clinical Trials, Research, Grants & Funding, Careers & Training

Basic information on Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate for kids.

Operation Smile mobilizes a world of generous hearts to heal children’s smiles and transform lives across the globe. Our network of volunteers works worldwide to repair childhood facial deformities including cleft lips and cleft palates.

Operation Rainbow is dedicated to performing free orthopedic surgery for indigent children and young adults worldwide.

Nossa missão, além da correção estética, funcional e emocional é de prover uma oportunidade e um ambiente especial de trabalho, onde as pessoas com deformidades faciais e dificuldades especiais adquiram experiência de trabalho, confiança e auto-estima para poderem enfrentar dignamente o competitivo mercado de trabalho.

The Center specializes in the evaluation and treatment of patients of all ages with craniofacial deformities. Its services cover a broad range of reconstructive operations for the treatment of deformities of the face and skull resulting from birth defects, tumors, and trauma.

Central database of links to more information. 

Atraumatic Restorative Treatment

Active ImageAtraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART or PRAT in Spanish) is a simple method to treat dental caries in situations where traditional cavity preparations are not feasible. The technique was developed over 10 years ago and has been proven to be an effective treatment option. It involves the removal of soft, demineralized tissue followed by the restoration of the tooth with fluoride-releasing glass ionomer.

ART/PRAT systems have been successfully employed all over the world as it does not require electricity, running water, or anesthesia. PAHO, with the support of the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB), demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of ART/PRAT compared to amalgam restorations in three LAC countries over three years. Longer-term studies are currently underway. Results of this study can be found under the Related Methods section.

This section reviews the history, research and development of the technique, practical purposes, and current studies and trends.

Introduction and Fact Sheets

WHO Introduction

Restauración atraumática para el control de la caries dental: historia, características y aportes de la técnica

Revista Panamericana de la Salud Publica, 2005. Este trabajo presenta información de relevancia científica sobre la historia, características y aportes de la técnica de restauración atraumática en la prevención y el control de la caries dental.

Scientific and Technical Publications


icon La Salud Oral de los Niños de Bajos Ingresos. Procedimientos para el Tratamiento Restaurativo Atraumático. (979,08 kB) 

OPS. BID. 2009. ATN/JF-7025-RG. NÚMERO DE PROYECTO 091024. Informe final. Saskia Estupiñán-Day, Trevor Milner, Marisol Téllez

En el presente estudio, las técnicas básicas de evaluación económica, particularmente las técnicas de análisis costo-efectividad (ACE), se utilizaron para evaluar la práctica de la técnica PRAT. La investigación tuvo como objetivo introducir la técnica PRAT en los servicios de atención dental del gobierno en Panamá, Ecuador y Uruguay como una modalidad de tratamiento restaurador para el tratamiento de caries tanto en los dientes primarios como permanentes, ampliando así la cobertura de los servicios bucodentales a nuevas poblaciones de niños, incluidos los que actualmente carecen de acceso a tratamientos convencionales en base a Amalgamas.

icon Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) to the Rural Population: A GOI – WHO Collaborative Programme (913.55 kB)

WHO, Mahatma Gandhi Post graduate Institute Of Dental Sciences & Government of Puducherry Institution, 2007. Report of use of ART in rural Puducherry grammar schools and colleges. Evaluation of cost effectiveness, and retention of fillings.

icon Oral Health of Low Income Children: Procedures for Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (PRAT) (2.6 MB)

PAHO, 2006. Basic techniques of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), PRAT in government dental care facilities in Panama, Ecuador and Uruguay, thus extending coverage of oral services to those without access to conventional Amalgam-based treatment.

icon Comparative economic evaluation of an Atraumatic Restoration Treatment Program (3.53 MB)

PAHO & InterAmerican Development Bank, 1999. Comparative economic evaluation of an Atraumatic Restoration Treatment Program: Study design and protocol for  selected countries. Document about concept, technical design, protocol and preliminary inputs for the cost-effectiveness analysis of Atraumatic RestorativeTreatment.

icon Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) for Tooth Decay: Global Initiative 1998-2000 (660.18 kB)

WHO, 1998. Historical document showing WHO plans for promoting ART around the world.

Training Materials                                                               

icon Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) for Tooth Decay: How to organize and run an ART training course (4.77 MB)

WHO, 2000. Educational material for facilitators of ART training based on experience gained in over 30 countries.

icon Practica de Restauracion Atraumatica (PRAT) para la Caries Dental – Como Organizar un Curso PRAT (2.68 MB)

OMS, Escuela de Odontología de la Universidad de Nijmegen, 2001. Materiales educativas para entrenar facilitadores en la técnica PRAT basado en experiencia recibido en más que 30 países. 

Seminal book (avaiable for free online) that is a step-by-step guide for treating a patient with the ART technique. 

Additional Resources

American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, 2008.  Review of treatment options for dental caries in pediatric populations.

UMC St. Radboud Dental School, the Netherlands. ART Resource center especially useful for those considering ART implementation.

Saskia Estupiñán-Day. Asesora Regional de Salud Oral.Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Presentación en el II Congresso Mundial de Esperiencias de Odontologia na Saúde Pública. 11-13 de Julho de 2001. Londrina, Brazil



Sources - Database:

General Health Sicience: LILACS, MEDLINE /International Agencies:  PAHO- Pan American Health Organization, WHOLIS - World Health Organization / Cochrane Library: Cochrane systematic reiews, Protocols of Cochrane systematic reviews, CENTRAL, Abstracts by INAHTA, economic studies and critically appraised, abstracts of quality assessments / BBO -Brazilian Dentistry Bibliography  / MEDCARIB - Caribbean Health Sciences Literature / Bandolier / Ibero-American Clinical Trials, Evidence. Updating in ambulatory, Reports / HIL- Internet Resources.

Reports and Meetings

Active ImageOral Health Workshop for the Region of the Americas: A Call for Action for Caries-Free Communities for Vulnerable Populations. 23-25 April 2009, Mexico City

Key oral health leaders from each country will be invited to participate in the three-day workshop to discuss and recommend strategic intervention for the CFC initiative. The aim is to achieve the broadest possible support and contributions to the CFC by sharing successful practices, profiling and scaling up existing programs, thus contributing to the creation and implementation of new programs under this initiative.

Workshop on caries prevention for communities in the Region of the Americas

The course will offer an adaptation of techniques and curricula developed by the HHS Indian Health Service on oral health promotion/disease prevention methodologies. A key aspect of the training will be the provision of dental sealants and varnishes

Oral Health in Aging Societies: Integration of Oral Health and General Health. (933.89 kB)

WHO, 2006. Report of a meeting convened at the WHO Centre for Health Development in Kobe, Japan, 1-3 June 2005. Discussions on improving health for the elderly, strategies and areas of action, policy development, programmes and health systems capacity building, and training for service and care.

Promoviendo la Salud Oral en la Región. Reunión Regional de Jefes de Salud Oral. Habana, Cuba. 20-22 de abril de 2004. (24.37 MB)

El objetivo del evento fue conocer las nuevas regulaciones de vigilancia epidemiológica y control de calidad, así como los avances de los programas de fluoruración de la sal, fluorosis dental y los niveles de flúor en la orina.

Ministerio de Salud Pública del Ecuador. Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Programa Regional de Salud Oral. Relatoría e Informe Final. Taller Regional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica y Control de Calidad para los Programas de Fluoruración de Sal. Quito, Ecuador. 27- 9 de julio de 1998 (6.13 MB) (Only in Spanish)

Intercambio de información de 23 países sobre el plan estratégico de la última década (90s) incluyendo indicadores de población cubierta con flúor (agua, sal, leche, tópico), incluye powerpoint slides. Recomendaciones con las metas del milenio como base. 

Last Updated on Thursday, 08 November 2012 14:43

Water Fluoridation Promotes Oral Health across Communities

Water Fluoridation Promotes Oral Health across Communities

Hailed as one of 10 great public health achievements of the 20th century by the CDC, water fluoridation has been preventing tooth decay in communities since 1945. This section highlights an overview on community water fluoridation and its benefits for oral health from the Center for Disease Control

Last Updated on Monday, 15 November 2010 09:39

Donate to Oral Health of Haiti (OHOH) Coalition

Your Donation Will Help Restore Dental Health Services in Haiti. (Click here to visit the Pan American Health and Education Foundation Website)

The OHOH Coalition is rebuilding dental health services in Haiti by mobilizing volunteers and providing dental equipment.

The Dental Trade Alliance Members Help Rebuild Haitian Oral Health Care

In collaboration with the Pan American Health Organization, the dental community in Haiti has completed an evaluation of the status of their facilities and the immediate needs in the community. Working with DTA, PAHO has also developed a mechanism to assure that donated equipment and supplies will reach the appropriate parties in Haiti.   [For more information click here]

Last Updated on Monday, 26 July 2010 06:23
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