Intestinal schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni is the only type of schistosomiasis transmitted in the Americas, where it affects at least 1 million individuals. People get infected when they come into contact with fresh water contaminated with the minute larvae of the worm. Risky behaviours are most frequent in children as they play in water bodies in rural areas. Schistosomiasis is linked to poverty, and transmission is sustained by the habit of defecating open-air and the absence of proper sanitation. Intestinal schistosomiasis is associated with severe morbidity and can be a cause of death, but taking praziquantel at regular intervals protects individuals from the worst consequences of infection and ensures a healthy and productive life.