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CHA.06 AMR/IPC (Descriptions)

Antimicrobial Resistance is a process by which bacteria develop mechanisms that allow them to survive against substances that cause them harm or death.

The risk for developing resistance significantly increases with inappropriate use of antibiotics. Other factors, however, also increase the magnitude of the problem, such as the use of antibiotics in agriculture and animal consumption, and fragile programs on Infection Prevention and Control.

Community Acquired Infections

Antimicrobial resistance also impact the treatment of community-acquired infections. For example, Escherichia coli urinary tract infections, and respiratory infections by Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae may not respond to antibiotics commonly used and require the use of more complex and expensive treatments.

Hospital Acquired Infections

Multiresistant pathogens are responsible for increased morbidity and mortality of patients admitted to hospitals.  They cause large increases in healthcare costs due to the need of more expensive drugs and a prolonged hospital stay. In addition, these hospital-acquired infections affect most fragile patients in intensive care units, oncology and neonatology, which often result in high mortality.

Containment of resistance

The main actions that contribute to the containment of antimicrobial resistance are appropriate prescribing, community education, monitoring of resistance and health-care associated infections, and compliance with legislation on the use and dispensation of antimicrobials.

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