In the light of a growing awareness of the risks of inducing skin injuries as a consequence of fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures, this paper compares three methods of monitoring entrance surface dose. It also reports measurements of ESDs made during the period August 1998 to June 1999 on 137 patients undergoing cardiac, neurological and general FGIPs. Although the sample is small, the results reinforce the need for routine assessment would seem to be arrays of TLDs. However, transducer based methods, although likely to be less accurate, have considerable advantages in relation to a continuous monitoring programme. It is also suggested that there may be the potential locally for threshold dose area product values to be set for specific procedures. These could be used to provide early warning of the potential for skin injuries.
Public concern over the possible health effects fromelcctromagnetic fields (EMF) has led to the preparation of this handbook. Potential risk of EMF exposure from facilities such as power lines or mobile phone base stations present a difficult set of challenges for decision- makers. The challenges include determining if there is a hazard from EMF exposure and what the potential health impact, i.e. risk assessment; recognizing the reasons why the public may be concerned, i.e. risk perception; and implementing policies that protect public health and respond to public concerns, i.e. management.
Regional Office for the Americas of the World Health Organization