Skip to content

Poor Diet

High risk approach

2010-10-25 11:03:45

The purpose of the high-risk approach is to prevent morbidity, early mortality and improve general of quality of life due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in individuals with an elevated total CVD risk. Total CVD risk is defined as the probability of a cardiovascular event (e.g. stroke or myocardial infarction) occurring within a given time period. It is determined by the risk factor profile, which is dependent on combined risk factors, as well as sex and age. An individual with several mildly elevated levels may have a higher total CVD risk than of an individual with one elevated risk factor.  The intensity of the prevention strategy should be guided by level of total risk. Lifestyle interventions addressing diet, exercise, smoking habits and, when needed, drug treatment will reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. 

Atherosclerosis, the process of plaque building up in the arteries, is the main pathological process contributing to cardiovascular diseases. The process begins early in life, but the rate in which it progresses and potentially leads to CVD is influenced by several factors including:

  • Tobacco use
  • Unhealthy diet and physical inactivity leading to obesity
  • Elevated blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Abnormal blood lipids (dyslipidemia)
  • Elevated blood glucose (diabetes)

How to Determine Risk?

The WHO/ISH Risk Prediction Charts predict the 10 year risk of a fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular event occurring. The charts allow for risk stratification specific to each region by incorporating the factors listed above.

 To read more about the prevention of cardiovascular disease through a high risk approach, please click here.





Read more

Survey on Diabetes, Hypertension, and Chronic Disease Risk Factors: San José, Costa Rica

2010-06-21 12:59:12

Encuesta CAMDI Costa RicaSince March 2000, Costa Rica has been part of the Central American Diabetes Initiative (CAMDI), a subregional initiative sponsored by PAHO and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, Atlanta, USA). Within this framework, a survey was carried out in all the capital cities of the Central American isthmus. The fundamental purpose is of this research was to serve as a starting point for the implementation of chronic disease surveillance and control of in the Central American subregion.

Read more

Survey on Diabetes, Hypertension, and Chronic Disease Risk Factors: Managua, Nicaragua, 2010

2010-06-21 12:20:58

Encuesta CAMDI NicaraguaWith the objective of acquiring a better knowledge of the current situation of diabetes mellitus in the population of 20 years and older in Managua, the Central American Diabetes Initiative (CAMDI) conducted its first survey on diabetes and hypertension in 2003. The secondary objectives of the study were to measure the prevalence of risk factors for diabetes and hypertension as well as the relationship between the prevalence of these diseases and their risk factors, while studying the population's demographic, environmental, social, cultural, and economic features.

Read more

Survey of Diabetes, Hypertension and Chronic Disease Risk Factors: Belize

2010-06-21 12:01:46

CAMDI survey, BelizeThere is some evidence that noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes and hypertension are increasingly becoming major public health concerns in Belize, in particular as reflected in the country’s mortality and hospitalization statistics over the past several years. However, there is a lack of adequate information on the prevalence of chronic diseases in Belize and the populations affected. Such information is important for securing and allocating financial resources for the development and implementation of prevention and control programs. From November 2005 to July 2006, the Ministry of Health of Belize and PAHO's Central American Diabetes Initiative (CAMDI) implemented a national, cross-sectional, household survey to measure the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and their associated risk factors.

Read more

Regional Office for the Americas of the World Health Organization
525 Twenty-third Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20037, United States of America
Tel.: +1 (202) 974-3000 Fax: +1 (202) 974-3663

© Pan American Health Organization. All rights reserved.