Leading causes of deaths reflects those most frequent causes of death in a population. It is a useful analytical tool to identify health interventions to reduce mortality and improve population health.
This interactive data visualization presents leading causes of death for the Region of the Americas using the tabular list published by Becker R et al. at the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2006. Data is presented using a bar chart with a rank of causes of deaths and filters by year, age groups, and countries which allows displaying leading causes of deaths for the whole region and specific population groups.
Data source of this interactive visualization is the PAHO Regional Mortality System, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO).
:: Mortality and causes of death
Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by elevated blood glucose (hyperglycemia). It is associated with an absolute or relative deficiency in the secretion and/or action of insulin.
There are three main forms of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is the most common, accounting for approximately 85% to 90% of all cases. It is related to modifiable risk factors such as obesity or overweight, physical inactivity, and high-calorie diets of low nutritional value.
Intermediate hyperglycemia, is characterized by the presence of prediabetes in conjunction with one other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor (hypertension, upper body obesity or dyslipidemia)
Recent estimates reveal that among Latin American and Caribbean countries, the highest prevalence of diabetes has been reported in Belize (12.4%) and Mexico (10.7%) with rates of 8% to 10% in Managua, Guatemala City, and Bogota. The most recent data from the United States reported a prevalence of diabetes of 9.3% while it was 15.7% along the US-Mexico border.
The burden of diabetes to an individual and to society is chiefly associated with increased disability and premature mortality due to complications. Diabetes complications and premature mortality are believed to be exacerbated by poor quality of care. In addition, the risk of dying from cardiovascular disease (CVD) is between two and three times higher among people with diabetes versus those without.
In a clinical study involving six Latin American countries, it was found that after 20 years of living with diabetes, the frequency of chronic complications was: 48% for retinopathy, 6.7% for blindness, 42% for neuropathy, 1.5% for kidney damage, 6.7% for myocardial infraction (heart attack), 3.3% for stroke and 7.3% for lower limb amputations.
Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus, Overweight (BMI ≥25) and obesity (BMI≥30) by gender in selected countries
Some population groups are at greater risk for complications than others. For example, studies in Barbados demonstrated a high incidence of lower limb amputations (936 per 100,000) and a higher prevalence of retinopathy among blacks (28.5% of black diabetics).
While diabetes and its complications are largely preventable, lack of access to quality health care services and lack of knowledge of preventive measures are widespread.
The cost of health care for people affected by diabetes is between two and three times higher than their peers without diabetes. In 2000, the cost of diabetes in the Region was estimated at US$ 65.2 billion, of which $10.7 billion were direct costs and $54.5 billion, indirect costs. In 2006, the cost of diabetes in some countries was reported between 0.4% and 2.3% of GDP.
Leading causes of death is an analytical tool to identify health interventions to reduce mortality and improve population health.
This interactive data visualization shows leading causes of death for the population of 60 years old and over in the Region of the Americas. It is based on tabular list published by Becker R et al. at the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2006.
Data is presented using a bar chart with a rank of causes of deaths and filters by year, sex, age groups, and countries which allows displaying leading causes of deaths for the whole region and specific population groups. In the case of years, a slider allows us to display leading causes of deaths by an specific year.
The source of this interactive visualization is the PAHO Regional Mortality System, Pan American Health Organization.
PAHO Director Dr. Mirta Roses presented her annual report for 2011 to the Permanent Council of the Organization of American States (OAS) on March 20. The report details PAHO member countries’ progress toward the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and describes the contributions of PAHO’s technical cooperation in these areas.
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