|Recess programs can boost activity levels in school-age children|
A new study in the Pan American Journal of Public Health, published by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), finds that efforts to increase activity levels in children during school recess can be effective overall but are least effective in increasing activity among sedentary children.
|Internship at the Pan American Health Organization: Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS)|
Terms of Reference
One position is available at the Area of Sustainable Development and Health Equity (SDE) for a 3 to 6 month internship to assist in the implementation of the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) in Latin America and the Caribbean. Terms of reference for this position include the following:
The 10 core questionnaire modules address the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children and adults worldwide:
What we offer:
What we ask for:
Deadline for submissions: currently open
|Cancer mortality is declining in some countries of the Americas -- new PAHO/WHO report|
Deaths from cancer are decreasing in some countries of the Americas and for certain kinds of cancer, while deaths from other cancer types are on the rise in the region, according to a new report from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Regional Office for the Americas of the World Health Organization (WHO).
|The Dual Threat of Diabetes and Tuberculosis in the Americas|
Access the complete complete version of document The Dual Threat of Diabetes and Tuberculosis in the Americas
Diabetes and tuberculosis are two chronic diseases with high impact in populations of developing countries. The risk for tuberculosis is augmented by impaired host defense in individuals, such as those with HIV and diabetes. Objective:estimate the number of cases of TB associated with DM (TB/DM) in the Americas in 2008.
The number of cases of tuberculosis related to diabetes by age and gender were estimated by calculating the Population Attributable Fraction (PAF). Estimates of the prevalence of diabetes and the incidence of tuberculosis were extracted from the IDF Diabetes Atlas and the WHO Global TB Database respectively. The incidence of TB/DM is presented in number of cases per 100,000 by country. Breakdowns by age, gender, country income and geographic sub regions are also presented.
Overall 26 countries from the Americas were included in the analysis, accounting for some 528 million people of 25-79 years of age. The incidence of TB/DM was estimated at 31,411 (18, 495-53,352) cases (5.9 X 100,000 population). The risk varied among countries, with the highest risk observed in Haiti (59.3 per 100,000), and the lowest in Puerto Rico (0.9 per 100,000).
Diabetes Mellitus was estimated to be a substantial contributor to the burden of tuberculosis in the Americas Region in 2008. Because of the increased risk for tuberculosis, diabetes may contribute to the resurgence of tuberculosis in areas where it is currently under control and may impact negatively its control. It is recommended that tuberculosis screening is routinely conducted among those with diabetes especially those with uncontrolled diabetes.
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) affects 55 Million people in the Americas and its prevalence is expected to increase to 83 Million by 2030[i]. The diabetes epidemic is driven by a similar increase in the prevalence of obesity (Body Mass Index, BMI≥30 Kg/m2) which is a direct consequence of hyper-caloric diet and lack of physical activity. Diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, terminal kidney disease, blindness and amputations. People suffering from diabetes require continuous care and may face premature mortality from its complications if not managed well.
Tuberculosis (TB) continues affecting millions of people worldwide, despite the widespread availability of effective treatment for many years. In the Americas approximately 280,000 people are affected by all forms of tuberculosis every year[ii]. Most cases of tuberculosis are diagnosed in low-middle income countries and often concentrated in endemic areas with poor living conditions. The risk for tuberculosis is augmented by impaired host defense in individuals, such as those with HIV and diabetes[iii],[iv], [v].
In Mexico, the investigation of a national representative sample of 2,716 smear positive cases of TB showed that overall 22% of the total sampled cases were also persons with diagnosed diabetes[vi]. Another recent study showed that the prevalence of TB among 345 persons with diabetes under care was 1.5%, and half of them were asymptomatic cases of TB [vii]. In this study, those with diabetes were screened for tuberculosis with 3 sputum smear and monitored for diabetes control with one hemoglobin A1 (HbA1c) in Jalisco, Mexico. All cases of TB in this study were diagnosed among those with poorly controlled diabetes. A recent analysis of the impact of diabetes on the incidence of tuberculosis indicated that in India, diabetes accounted for 14.8% of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis and 20.2% of smear positive tuberculosis[viii].
Giving the rising public health importance of the DM TB co morbidity and its potential costly impact on society, PAHO conducted an analysis to better document the number of cases of TB associated with DM (TB/DM) in the Americas in 2008.
Overall 26 countries from the Americas were included in the analysis, accounting for some 528 million people of 25-79 years of age. Table 2 shows the prevalence of diabetes and the incidence of TB by country. Read more...
Incidence of Tuberculosis
Prevalence of Diabetes
Incidence of Tuberculosis Associated to Diabetes
Conclusions and recommendations
It is recommended that tuberculosis screening is routinely conducted among those with diabetes especially those with uncontrolled diabetes. Control of diabetes mellitus should be undertake as a strategy for decreasing the burden of tuberculosis. Read more...
Regional Office for the Americas of the World Health Organization