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IVHHN logoThe International Volcanic Health Hazard Network (IVHHN) is an umbrella organization for all research and dissemination of information on volcanic health hazards and impacts. The website ( provides public information on the health hazards and impacts of volcanic eruptions, including a series of pamphlets on volcanic ash, gases and public protection. The website also contains epidemiological protocols and protocols for the collection and laboratory analysis of volcanic ash for rapid health hazard assessment, and a library of all research published in this field.

HIVE logo blackThe Health Interventions in Volcanic Eruptions (HIVE) research was funded by Elrha’s Research for Health in Humanitarian Crises (R2HC) Programme, which aims to improve health outcomes by strengthening the evidence base for public health interventions in humanitarian crises. R2HC is funded by the UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO), Wellcome, and the UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). Further support was also given by Durham University’s Research Impact Fund.


For further information on the research described in this article, please see:
1. Horwell, C.J. and P.J. Baxter, The respiratory health hazards of volcanic ash: a review for volcanic risk mitigation. Bulletin of Volcanology, 2006. 69(1): p. 1-24.
2. Mueller, W., et al., The effectiveness of respiratory protection worn by communities to protect from volcanic ash inhalation; Part I: Filtration efficiency tests. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 2018. 221(6): p. 967-976.
3. Steinle, S., et al., The effectiveness of respiratory protection worn by communities to protect from volcanic ash inhalation; Part II: Total inward leakage tests. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 2018. 221(6): p. 977-984.
4. Horwell, C.J., et al., Use of respiratory protection in Yogyakarta during the 2014 eruption of Kelud, Indonesia: Community and agency perspectives. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 2019. 382: p. 92-102.
5. Galea, K.S., et al., Health Interventions in Volcanic Eruptions—Community wearability assessment of respiratory protection against volcanic ash from Mt Sinabung, Indonesia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2018. 15(11): p. 2359.
6. Covey, J., et al., Community perceptions of protective practices to prevent ash exposures around Sakurajima volcano, Japan. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 2020. 46: p. 101525.
7. Covey, J.A., et al., Factors motivating the use of respiratory protection against volcanic ashfall: A comparative analysis of communities in Japan, Indonesia and Mexico. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 2019. 35: p. 101066.
8. Schwartz-Marin, E., et al., Merapi multiple: Protection around Yogyakarta’s celebrity volcano through masks, dreams, and seismographs. History and Anthropology, 2020.
9. Horwell, C.J., et al., The structure of volcanic cristobalite in relation to its toxicity; relevance for the variable crystalline silica hazard. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 2012. 9: p. 44.
10. Mueller, W., et al., The development of new standardized epidemiological protocols for use in volcanic eruption crises. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2020. 98: p. 362–364.
11. Mueller, W., et al., Health Impact Assessment of volcanic ash inhalation: A comparison with outdoor air pollution methods. GeoHealth, 2020. 4(7): p. e2020GH000256.
12. McDonald, F., et al., Facemask use for community protection from air pollution disasters: An ethical overview and framework to guide agency decision making. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 2020. 43: p. 101376.
13. Horwell, C.J. and F. McDonald, Coronavirus: why you need to wear a face mask in France, but not in the UK in The Conversation. 2020.
14. McDonald, F. and C.J. Horwell, Air pollution disasters: liability issues in negligence associated with the provision of personal protective interventions (facemasks). Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness 2020. In press.
15. Smithsonian Institution, G.V.P. Weekly reports: Agung. 2017 [cited 2017 25 November]; Available from:
16. Shore, J.H., E.L. Tatum, and W.M. Vollmer, Evaluation of mental health effects of disaster, Mount St Helens eruption. American Journal of Public Health, 1986. 76(3, Suppl.): p. 76-83.
17. Grinshpun, S.A., et al., Performance of an N95 Filtering Facepiece Particulate Respirator and a Surgical Mask During Human Breathing: Two Pathways for Particle Penetration. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 2009. 6(10): p. 593-603.
18. Rengasamy, S., B.C. Eimer, and J. Szalajda, A Quantitative Assessment of the Total Inward Leakage of NaCl Aerosol Representing Submicron-Size Bioaerosol Through N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators and Surgical Masks. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 2014. 11(6): p. 388-396.
19. Science & Environmental Health Network. Wingspread Conference on the Precautionary Principle. Visionary Science, Ethics, Law and Action in the Public Interest 1998 [cited 2017 23 August]; Available from:
20. Hanifah, D. Mount Agung Emergency Response Phase Four: A community effort to continue distributing critical supplies to Mount Agung evacuees. 2017 [cited 2018 30 July]; Available from:
21. Goh, D.Y.T., et al., A randomised clinical trial to evaluate the safety, fit, comfort of a novel N95 mask in children. Scientific Reports, 2019. 9(1): p. 18952.
22. Vawter, D.E., et al., For the Good of Us All: Ethically Rationing Health Resources in Minnesota in a Severe Influenza Pandemic, in Minnesota Pandemic Ethics Project Report. 2010, Minnesota Center for Health Care Ethics and the University of Minnesota Center for Bioethics. p. 183.
The HIVE study papers and train-the-trainer resources are downloadable from: