Target 3.3 End the transmission of communicable diseases such as HIV, malaria, Tb and neglected diseases



Mandates and strategies

  • CD55-15 Plan of Action for the Elimination of Neglected Infectious Diseases and Post-elimination Actions 2016-2022 The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and other poverty-related infections, now known in the Americas as the neglected infectious diseases (NIDs), rank together with HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis as among the most common serious infections both globally and in the Americas (1, 2). The NIDs have created a large burden on the lives of marginalized populations across the globe and in this Region.
  • CD46.R15: Regional Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS/STI, 2006-2015, of the Pan American Health Organization Cognizant that every day over 400 people die from AIDS in the Americas, of whom 353 are from Latin America and the Caribbean, and that there are no signs that the overall prevalence of HIV is diminishing; Concerned that Central America and the Caribbean are particularly affected by the epidemic; Aware that HIV/AIDS is a serious problem affecting the development of the Region, and posing a serious threat to the realization of regional and global goals, including Goal 6 of the United Nations Millennium Declaration...
  • CD50.R12: Strategy and Plan of Action for the Elimination of Mother-to-child Transmission of HIV and Congenital Syphilis Having reviewed the report of the Director, Strategy and Plan of Action for the Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Congenital Syphilis (Document CD50/15), based on the PAHO Strategic Plan 2008–2012; Considering that a review of the current situation indicates that the two basic conditions for eliminating the two diseases are within the reach of the countries of the Americas: the availability of effective means for interrupting mother-to-child transmission of HIV and congenital syphilis (biological viability) and the availability of practical treatment measures and simple, accessible, and sustainable diagnostic tools (programmatic and financial viability)...
  • CD55.R5 Plan of Action for the Prevention and Control of HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections 2016-2021 Having examined the Plan of Action for the Prevention and Control of HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections 2016-2021 (Document CD55/14); Considering that the Plan is aligned with the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Health Sector Strategies for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) for 2016-2021, the Global Strategy of the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) for 2016-2021, and Sustainable Development Goal 3,1 and provides a clear long-term goal of ending AIDS and STI epidemics as public health problems in the Americas by 2030...
  • CD54.R7 Plan of Action for the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis Having examined the Plan of Action for the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis for 2016-2019 (Document CD54/13, Rev. 1); Considering that the World Health Organization has provided an overarching framework to address the challenge of viral hepatitis at the global level; Considering Resolutions WHA63.18 (2010) and WHA67.6 (2014), the Call to Action to Scale up Global Hepatitis Response, and other documents published with a focus on advocacy and awareness, knowledge and evidence, prevention of transmission, screening, care, and treatment...
  • CD52-INF4-A Regional strategy and plan of action for neonatal health within the continuum of maternal, newborn, and child care (2008-2015): Midterm evaluation

Scientific articles

  • Intervenciones para el control de Aedes aegypti en América Latina y el Caribe: revisión sistemática y estudio cualitativo (Spanish only) Al momento no se ha logrado sintetizar toda la información cualicuantitativa relacionada al control de Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) en América Latina y el Caribe (ALC). Objetivo. Describir la existencia y el grado de ejecución de los programas específicos o actividades de control vectorial en ALC como parte de programas sanitarios, establecer los costos y/o costoefectividad de las estrategias de control vectorial e identificar barreras y facilitadores para la implementación de las estrategias. Métodos. El estudio se llevará a cabo en dos fases complementarias.
  •  Current dengue vector control strategies, focusing on reactive implementation of insecticide- based interventions in response to clinically apparent disease manifestations, tend to be inefficient, short-lived, and unsustainable within the worldwide epidemiological scenario of virus epidemic recrudescence. As a result of a series of expert meetings and deliberations, a paradigm shift is occurring and a new strategy, using risk stratification at the city level in order to concentrate proactive, sustained efforts in areas at high risk for transmission, has emerged. 
  • What will it take to end AIDS in the Americas? (Editorial) The Region of the Americas has been a pioneer in its response to HIV and has achieved admirable results. Over the course of the last 30 years, its countries have strengthened their national responses by building on the principles of equity and human rights, employing a gender perspective and scaling up HIV prevention, care and treatment programs to advance toward universal access. In Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), coverage of antiretroviral treatment (ART) reached 55% of the estimated 2 million persons living with HIV in 2015, a level exceeded only by Western and Central Europe and North America (59%).
  • Operational research to strengthen tuberculosis control in the Americas (Editorial) Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be an important global health problem, despite significant progress since the declaration of TB as a global public health emergency by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1993. Mortality has declined by 45% since then, with annual decreases of incidence and an estimated 37 million lives saved between 2000 and 2013. Countries have made a considerable effort to achieve the 2015 global targets related to TB within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Stop TB Strategy. In spite of this, an estimated 9 million people developed TB in 2013, of whom 360 000 cases were co-infected with HIV and 1.5 million died from the disease (1).
  • Social determinants and inequalities in tuberculosis incidence in Latin America and the Caribbean Objective. To identify key social determinants of tuberculosis (TB) incidence among countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), a geographic area regarded as one of the most socioeconomically unequal in the world.

Technical documents

  •  Neglected infectious diseases (NID), which include Chagas disease, fascioliasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, leprosy, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, plague, human rabies transmitted by dogs, schistosomiasis, congenital syphilis, neonatal tetanus and trachoma, affect the poorest of the poor.
  • Tool for the diagnosis and care of patients with suspected arboviral diseases; 2016 Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease in the Americas and the most suspected in patients with fever. However, the recent introduction of two new arboviral diseases (chikungunya virus in late 2013 and Zika virus in 2014) has created a new challenge for public health in the Americas. The three arboviral diseases (dengue, chikungunya, and Zika) can produce very similar clinical symptoms, mainly during the acute phase (the first days of the disease), hindering clinical diagnosis by health workers, creating problems for appropriate case management, and sometimes triggering fatal events. 
  • Zika Virus Infection: Step-by-Step Guide to Risk Communication and Community Engagement; 2016 This document provides Technical content on ZIKV, its manifestations, complications, modes of transmission, and prevention measures to be used in answering frequently asked questions and conveying messages in information and communication materials, community talks, press conferences, etc.
  • Strategy and Plan of Action for Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Congenital Syphilis in Latin America and the Caribbean: Regional Monitoring Strategy. 3. ed. PAHO and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) have developed strategies for advancing towards the elimination of mother-to-child transmission (EMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and congenital syphilis (CS). PAHO has been monitoring progress as well as guiding and coordinating processes to validate country-level elimination once countries have reached and maintained the established goals.
  • Report on the Situation of Malaria in the Americas 2014; 2016 In 1954, the countries in the Americas made the trail- blazing decision to adopt malaria eradication as a program with the Pan American Sanitary Bureau as the coordinating unit. It was a year later when the Global Program for Malaria Eradication was created and became the coordinating unit for malaria in the world. Throughout its more than a century-long effort in reducing malaria transmission, the disease has remained at the forefront of Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) member states' concerns. In September 2016, health ministers from across the Region of the Americas adopted a new plan for malaria elimination over the next four years, urging countries to intensify the fight against the disease. The current state of malaria in the Americas has changed dramatically from the mid-fifties.
  •  Faced with the complex situation caused by dengue in the Americas and around the world, in 2003 the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) developed the Integrated Management Strategy for Dengue Prevention and Control in the Americas (IMS-Dengue) in collaboration with its member countries in order to tackle the disease through these six components: laboratory, social communication, epidemiology, integrated vector management, environmental, and patient care. The Organization considers patient care to be a vital component and has made it a priority.
  •  This past May 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) Member States endorsed the first "Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis 2016-2021" at the 69th World Health Assembly. This strategy will contribute to the achievement of the Health Goals set out in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Member States in the Americas have been working toward meeting the Strategy's ambitious goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030.
  •  The main objective of this report is to identify progress, gaps and challenges in the response to children living with HIV. The aim is to contribute to a more focused, effective and accelerated response towards achieving the 90-90-90 targets on HIV diagnosis, treatment and viral load suppression among this vulnerable population by 2020. The report includes an overview of estimates and trends for children living with HIV, children newly diagnosed, and HIV-related deaths.
  •  Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the recommended treatments for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in all malaria endemic areas of South America. Resistance of P. falciparum to the artemisinin drugs has already been detected in the Greater Mekong subregion of Southeast Asia and would represent a major setback to malaria control efforts if it were to develop in or spread to South America. Although artemisinin resistance has not been confirmed in the Americas, the interior of Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana and bordering areas of Brazil and Venezuela (together known as the Guiana Shield) share many characteristics with the Greater Mekong subregion that increase the risk for selection of resistant parasites. 
  • WHO global strategy for the surveillance and monitoring of HIV drug resistance 2012 The document summarizes a comprehensive package of HIV drug resistance surveys that should be implemented in all countries scaling-up and maintaining populations on antiretroviral therapy (ART). 
  • Fourth Regional Meeting of Managers of National Programs for the Elimination of Trachoma as a Public Health Problem in the Americas. Mexico City, 6-8 September 2016 The Fourth Regional Meeting of Managers of National Programs for the Elimination of Trachoma as a Public Health Problem in the Americas served as an opportunity to exchange information and experiences in order to reinforce activities designed to eliminate trachoma as a public health problem in the Americas. With the participation of national representatives from countries with known trachoma foci, as well as from countries that share borders with active foci, it was possible to identify the situation in each nation and to define joint activities and technical cooperation so that the necessary epidemiological information can be compiled. The evidence presented constitutes great progress in elucidating the epidemiological situation of the disease and in defining the actions required to eliminate it. Countries with active foci have directed their efforts toward strengthening the SAFE (Surgery, Antibiotics, Facial cleanliness and Environmental improvement) strategy, conducting prevalence surveys and active trachomatous trichiasis (TT) casefinding as well as the mapping of areas with communities living in vulnerable conditions where trachoma could constitute a public health issue...The conclusions and recommendations of the meeting, with the consensus of all participants, are presented below. 
  • Epidemiological Report of the Americas. Leishmaniases (March, 2019) The leishmaniasis surveillance and control program is based on detection and treatment of cases, combined with other health education measures, as well as actions towards vector and reservoir, when recommended. Case investigation and risk stratification are strategies that help the managers address these actions to be more opportune and efficient, however, the challenges in maintaining these activities sustainable over time persist, due to the high costs of the surveillance, prevention and control actions. This report presents the 2017 leishmaniasis data analyses for the Region, as well as the CL and VL risk stratification proposed by the Regional Program along with experts and the countries. Likewise, the establishment of the Triennium - Composite Indicator, which takes into consideration the average of number of cases and incidence from the past 3 years for both clinical forms.
  •  Since the HIV epidemic began, the Region of the Americas has spearheaded the global response to HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), pursuing efforts based on a public health and human rights approach. While progress has been made, significant gaps and challenges persist, and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and its Member States must now strengthen their capacity to undertake innovative and effective strategies to address these epidemics and pave the way towards their elimination as public health problems. (french / portuguese)
  • Guidelines for the prevention, care and treatment of persons with chronic hepatitis B infection These are the first World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the prevention, care and treatment of persons living with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection, and complement similar recently published guidance by WHO on the prevention, care and treatment of infection due to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The recommendations in these guidelines promote the use of simple, non-invasive diagnostic tests to assess the stage of liver disease and eligibility for treatment; prioritize treatment for those with most advanced liver disease and at greatest risk of mortality; and recommend the preferred use of nucleos(t)ide analogues with a high barrier to drug resistance (tenofovir and entecavir, and entecavir in children aged 2–11 years) for first- and second-line treatment. Recommendations for the treatment of HBV/HIV-coinfected persons are based on the WHO 2013 Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection, which will be updated in 2015.