Target 3.4 End maternal deaths due to noncommunicable diseases



Scientific articles

  • Agriculture, food, and nutrition interventions that facilitate sustainable food production and impact health: an overview of systematic reviews  Objectives. To identify the agriculture, food, and nutrition security interventions that facilitate sustainable food production and have a positive impact on health. Methods. Systematic review methods were used to synthesize evidence from multiple systematic reviews and economic evaluations through a comprehensive search of 17 databases and 10 websites. The search employed a pre-defined protocol with clear inclusion criteria. Both grey and peer-reviewed literature published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese between 1 January 1997 and November 2013 were included. 
  •  Though the devastating health effects of tobacco use are well known, tobacco's negative repercussions extend well beyond the obvious health outcomes. Tobacco consumption creates a significant economic burden on societies because of both the high costs of health care and the associated lost productivity. In addition, tobacco use contributes to health inequalities and exacerbates poverty within and between countries through the diversion of resources away from food and other essential needs as well as through foregone income. These and other adverse consequences of the tobacco epidemic disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries, where more than 80% of the world's smokers now live, including 127 million (or 11.4%), in the Region of the Americas. 
  •  Cancer incidence by type has been included as a core indicator in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Monitoring Framework for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases. The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development (GICR), coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), supports low- and middle-income countries to reduce disparities in cancer information for cancer control by increasing the coverage and quality of cancer registration. 
  •  Objective. To compare the prevalence of bullying victimization, suicidal ideation, suicidal attempts, and negative health behaviors (current tobacco use, recent heavy alcohol use, truancy, involvement in physical fighting, and unprotected sexual intercourse) in five different Latin American countries and determine the association of bullying victimization with these outcomes, exploring both bullying type and frequency.  


Technical documents

  •  In October 2014, Member States at the 53rd session of the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), unanimously approved the Plan of Action for the Prevention of Obesity in Children and Adolescents. is development reflected the awareness among governments of the alarming prevalence of obesity in the Americas-the highest in the world-and was an unequivocal sign that countries in the Region were committed to taking action. The Plan of Action mandates that PAHO provide evidence-based information for the development of fiscal and other types of policies and regulations to prevent the consumption of unhealthy foods, including front-of-package (FOP) labeling and Regional nutrition guidelines for school food environments (feeding programs and food and beverages sold in schools).
  •  This document, prepared under the the Organization's innovative initiative "Strengthening Regulatory Capacity in the Region of the Americas for NCD Risk Factors" (REGULA), provides an overview of the status of key noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factors in the Americas and fulfillment of international agreements that support action by Ministries of Health to protect populations from the associated risks factors. It reviews the current regulatory situation in the Region, resents the key conceptual and operational elements of effective regulation, and proposes lines of action for technical cooperation to strengthen regulatory capacity for NCDs in the Americas.
  •  Cervical cancer is one of the gravest threats to women's lives. It is estimated that over a million women worldwide currently have cervical cancer. Most of these women have not been diagnosed, nor do they have access to treatment that could cure them or prolong their lives. In 2012, 528 000 new cases of cervical cancer were diagnosed, and 266 000 women died of the disease, nearly 90% of them in low- to middle-income countries. Without urgent attention, deaths due to cervical cancer are projected to rise by almost 25% over the next 10 years.
  •  Economic Dimensions of Noncommunicable Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean is a companion volume to Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition (DCP3). This volume explores the relationship between and the impact of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) on development and economic growth in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). This collection of manuscripts examines the complex interplay among NCDs, health expenditures and financial investments in health, poverty, and inequities, using up-to-date information and evidence from the LAC region.
  •  Preexisting diabetes and hyperglycemia first detected in pregnancy can have serious consequences for the health both of the baby and the mother; in particular, these conditions increase the risk of miscarriage and perinatal morbidity and mortality. It is estimated that one out of seven pregnant women worldwide suffers from hyperglycemia, corresponding to gestational diabetes (GDM) in 85% of cases. Up to 30% of pregnant women may be affected, but many cases of gestational diabetes are not diagnosed, with potentially fatal consequences for mother and baby. Data on the frequency of GDM is scarce: since there is no global, standardized approach to its screening and diagnosis, GDM often goes undiagnosed.
  • América Latina y el Caribe: Panorama de la seguridad alimentaria y nutricional. Sistemas alimentarios sostenibles para poner fin al hambre y la malnutrición, 2016 (Spanish only) América Latina y el Caribe (ALC) se encuentra en una etapa de transición entre dos momentos clave en su desarrollo. Si bien en los últimos 20 años los países de ALC han avanzado en la prevención y control de las deficiencias nutricionales, se observa un rápido incremento en la prevalencia del sobrepeso y la obesidad que afecta a toda la población sin importar su condición económica, su lugar de residencia o su origen étnico. La coexistencia del hambre, la desnutrición, las deficiencias de micronutrientes, el sobrepeso, la obesidad se debe, entre otras causas, a la falta de acceso a una alimentación saludable que provea la cantidad de nutrientes necesarios para llevar una vida sana y activa.
  •  This report was conceived as a practical tool that provides essential information to better understand suicidal behavior and the main strategies to combat it, from registry to the evaluation of interventions, taking into account the approaches already under way in the Region. The contents have been organized for easy reading, beginning with a worldwide overview of suicide from WHO’s perspective.
  •  The WHO Mental Health Atlas was first produced as the Atlas of Mental Health Resources in the World 2001 (WHO, 2001). Since then, subsequent updates have been published (WHO, 2005; WHO, 2011). The Mental Health Atlas ( evidence/ atlas/mental health_atlas _2014/en/) provides up-to-date information on the availability of mental health services and resources across the world as well as baseline data towards meeting the established targets of the Comprehensive mental health action plan 2013-2020 ( Information and data for the Mental Health Atlas are obtained via a questionnaire compiled by designated focal points in each WHO Member State.  
  •  obacco is the only legal consumer product that kills up to half of those who use it as intended by the manufacturer. Worldwide, it kills one person every six seconds. Tobacco use is a risk factor for six of the eight leading causes of death worldwide as well as for the four most prevalent noncommunicable diseases: cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes. Global efforts on tobacco control are setting the standard for work to reduce the burden of NCD risk factors, and many of the interventions included in the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) can be used to curb other risk factors like ultra-processed food, sugary beverages and harmful use of alcohol. 
  • In the Region of the Americas, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are a clear threat not only to human health, but also to a country's economic development and growth. The evidence on both of these counts is compelling. In 2012, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancers, chronic respiratory conditions including asthma, and other NCDs were the cause of 4.5 million deaths in the Americas. Of that total number, 1.5 million of them were premature, occurring among people aged 30-69 years. The financial impact of NCDs in the Americas is just as dismaying, with chronic diseases posing a growing threat to many nations' economic stability. According to a 2007 Lancet article, without intensified NCD prevention efforts, countries around the world could expect their gross domestic product (GDP) to decline by billions of dollars.
  •  Recent decades have witnessed major changes in nutritional status and trends at the global level. As we embark on the United Nations' Decade of Action on Nutrition, 50 million children under age 5 worldwide are suffering from wasting or acute malnutrition, 165 million children under 5 are stunted, and 273 million children ages 6 months to 5 years, along with 500 million women of childbearing age, are suffering from anemia. At the same time, some 41 million children under 5 are overweight (a nearly 60% increase since 1990), and 39% of adults over 18 are overweight or obese. Clearly, these numbers point to an urgent need to adapt policies and programs to more effectively address this double burden of disease. (1–5).
  •  The rise in noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is increasingly undermining sustainable development, especially in low- and middle-income countries which suffer the highest burden of disease. Over the past several decades, countries in the Americas have made important gains in economic and social development, as well as considerable progress in reducing vaccine preventable infectious diseases, undernutrition, access to potable water and sanitation, and improving maternal and child health outcomes. 
  •  Care for persons with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is a major health priority for most countries worldwide, particularly for low-middle income countries where the problem seems to be worsening. Globally, research demonstrates that the vast majority of people with NCDs receive suboptimal care. Many people living with chronic conditions remain undiagnosed and unaware of their condition, while many others remain untreated or with inadequate control.1
  • Guía de intervención mhGAP para los trastornos mentales, neurológicos y por consumo de sustancias en el nivel de atención de salud no especializada. Versión 2.0 (Spanish only) Los trastornos mentales, neurológicos y por consumo de sustancias (MNS) son muy frecuentes y representan una gran carga de enfermedad y discapacidad a nivel mundial. Subsiste una amplia brecha entre la capacidad de los sistemas de salud y los recursos disponibles, entre lo que se necesita urgentemente y lo que está disponible para reducir la carga. (Portuguese version)