Target 3.8 Achieve universal access to health



Mandates and strategies

  • Annual Report of the Director 2015-2016, “Championing Health for Sustainable Development and Equity: Catalyzing Public Health Action” by Dr. Carissa F. Etienne, Director of the Pan American Health Organization CD55/DIV/7 This 2016 report is focused on the Bureau's leadership and its support to Member States during the several health emergencies that occurred, beginning with the most complex health emergency of the period, the Zika epidemic. I believe that this focus is both timely and pointedly relevant CD55/DIV/7 2 given the international debate on the role of the World Health Organization during health emergencies.
  •  Having considered the Strategy on Health-related Law (Document CD54/14, Rev. 1); Considering that the Constitution of the World Health Organization (WHO) establishes as one of its basic principles that "the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social condition;" Aware that the Strategic Plan of the Pan American Health Organization 2014-2019, in accordance with the Twelfth General Program of Work of WHO, establishes different categories, program areas, outputs and outcomes, and indicators...

Scientific articles

  • Disponibilidad de indicadores para el seguimiento del alcance de la “Salud Universal” en América Latina y el Caribe (Spanish only) El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la disponibilidad de indicadores en salud que permitan medir con validez los avances en la consecución de la "Salud Universal" en América Latina y el Caribe (ALC). Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de evidencia científica y documentos técnicocientíficos disponibles sobre la evaluación del desempeño de los sistemas de salud y del avance en Salud Universal en las siguientes fases: fase 1 de mapeo de indicadores, fase 2 de clasificación de indicadores, y fase 3 de mapeo de la disponibilidad de indicadores seleccionados en ALC.  
  • El monitoreo orientado a la equidad en el contexto de la cobertura universal de salud (Spanish only) El monitoreo de las desigualdades en la salud es fundamental para el logro progresivo y equitativo de la cobertura universal de salud. Para que tenga éxito, el monitoreo global de las desigualdades debe ser lo suficientemente intuitivo a fin de que pueda adoptarse ampliamente y debe mantener al mismo tiempo su credibilidad técnica. En este artículo se analizan algunas consideraciones metodológicas para el monitoreo de la cobertura universal de salud orientado a la equidad y se proponen recomendaciones con respecto al monitoreo y el establecimiento de metas. La desigualdad es multidimensional, de modo que el grado de desigualdad puede variar considerablemente entre distintas dimensiones, como la posición económica, la educación, el sexo y la residencia urbana o rural. 
  • Monitoramento orientado pela equidade no contexto da cobertura universal de saúde O monitoramento das desigualdades na saúde é fundamental para a realização equitativa e progressiva da cobertura universal de saúde. Para que tenha êxito, o monitoramento mundial das desigualdades deve ser intuitivo o bastante para que possa ser adotado amplamente, porém deve manter a credibilidade técnica. O presente artigo discute considerações metodológicas para o monitoramento da cobertura universal de saúde orientado pela equidade e propõe recomenda- ções para o monitoramento e a definição de metas. Como a desigualdade é multidimensional, o grau de desigualdade pode variar consideravelmente ao longo das diversas dimensões, como a situação econômica, a escolaridade, o sexo, e a residência urbana/rural.


Technical documents

  •  Universal health coverage ensures everyone has access to the health services they need without suffering financial hardship as a result. In December 2012, a UN resolution was passed encouraging governments to move towards providing universal access to affordable and quality health care services. As countries move towards it, common challenges are emerging -- challenges to which research can help provide answers.
  •  This document outlines a plan of action for the work of the Department of Health Systems Governance and Financing (HGF) in the area of health system governance and leadership, focusing particularly on governance for Universal Health Coverage (UHC). To motivate the plan of action, the document first reviews how governance has been defined as a general concept, then how the concept has been applied to health systems. The next section summarizes what others are doing in this field as a way of identifying where HGF's work could add value to on-going activities in and outside WHO, the topic of the last section.
  •  Under the theme "Championing Health: Sustainable Development and Equity," the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) Strategic Plan ("the Plan") sets out the Organization's strategic direction, based on the collective priorities of its Member States and country focus, and specifies the results to be achieved during the period 2014-2019.
  •  For the past two years, the World Bank and PAHO have engaged in a collaborative effort to examine policies and initiatives in LAC aimed at achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC). This report is one product of that collaboration. It includes contributions from professionals from both institutions and it has received the support of researchers from several countries in the region. The report provides insight on different approaches and progress being made by selected countries over the past quarter century to increase population coverage, services covered, and financial protection, with a special focus on reductions in health inequities. 
  •  The present document summarizes the key recommendations from this group of experts and highlights important considerations for implementing the Plan of Action. These recommendations are followed by a concise outline of concrete actions that should be taken in the Region, the expected time frame for action, and identification of the entities responsible for ensuring that the actions are carried out. The outline follows the format laid out in the Plan of Action on Health in All Policies, based on the six strategic lines of action and their specific objectives, with approved indicators for monitoring and evaluation.
  • Handbook on health inequality monitoring with a special focus on low- and middle-income countries The evidence generated from monitoring contributes to better-informed policies, programmes and practices, providing the necessary feedback to determine whether actions in the health sector and beyond are successful in reducing inequalities. In an effort to meet the demand for evidence-based results and accountability the World Health Organization, together with seven other agencies working in public health, have issued a call for action to strengthen the capacity for analysis, synthesis, validation and use of health data in countries.1 This includes ensuring that comparable estimates for common health indicators are made using the best available data and the most suitable methods, recognizing the need for coordination across settings.
  •  The purpose of this document is to explain to experts in the health and development fields what a human security approach is and show how it can be applied in an attempt to put individuals and communities on a path toward achieving a virtuous cycle of good health, wellbeing, and resilience. In particular, the document focuses on how the human security approach addresses the linkages among different sources of health threats and ensures that interventions are integrated so as to build and sustain health resilience at the individual, community, and institutional levels as a path toward health for all through universal health coverage (UHC).2 It also focuses on how human security can help translate health gains into improvements in wellbeing on a larger scale. 
  •  This document follows up the publication "Supply of Blood for Transfusion in Latin American and Caribbean Countries 2012 and 2013" and presents indicators on the availability, safety, and use of blood and blood components, as well as the organization of national blood systems. It is based on data provided by the health authorities for years 2014 and 2015. In the Caribbean, 18 countries/territories responded for both 2014 and 2015 and in Latin America, 17 for 2014 and 18 for 2015. 
  •  In September 2014, the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) approved the first Regional Plan of Action on Health in All Policies (Regional HiAP Plan), with a view to defining concrete measures for implementation of this ambitious and innovative approach to public policies in the countries of the Americas. With this initiative, the Region of the Americas is leading the way in implementation of the Global Framework for Action at the Country Level on Health in All Policies (Global HiAP Framework) of the World Health Organization (WHO), defined in January 2014.