Health Surveillance and Disease Management / Communicable Diseases / Malaria

RAVREDA-AMI: Amazon Network for the Surveillance of Antimalarial Drug Resistance (RAVREDA) / Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI)



Objectives, Lines of Work, Workplans

Thematic Areas





RAVREDA/AMI Background


In 1998, a group of experts convened in Brazil to review a protocol for surveillance of the effectiveness of the antimalarial drugs. The group developed a standardized method for evaluating the therapeutic effectiveness of antimalarial drugs used in the management of Plasmodium falciparum cases in the Americas. In the same meeting, preliminary standards for the evaluation of the therapeutic effectiveness of Chloroquine against Plasmodium vivax were prepared, which were reviewed in the year 2000 by a group of experts convened by PAHO. The document underwent another review in December 2001 at a WHO meeting on monitoring antimalarial drug resistance.

Within the framework of the Roll Back Malaria Initiative in the Americas, PAHO has been supporting the Amazon countries in the establishment of a surveillance network system that follows the protocol adapted by PAHO. The Amazon Network for the Surveillance of Antimalarial Drug Resistance (RAVREDA) was formed by Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela, with technical support from PAHO, as resolved at the Third Meeting of the Surveillance Network for Emerging Infectious Diseases in the Amazon Countries, held in Bahia, Brazil, in March 2001.

In October 2001, the Office for Infectious Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID/LAC) partnered with PAHO and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and launched the Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI). The Management Sciences for Health's Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus (MSH/RPM Plus) program and United States Pharmacopoeia's Drug Quality and Information (USP/DQI) also joined the initiative in 2002. The project contributes to the world goal of Roll Back Malaria to significantly reduce the global malaria burden through interventions tailored to meet local needs.

RAVREDA/AMI activities formally began in 2002. Since then, alongside the AMI partners, PAHO has been coordinating technical cooperation and project activities in the Amazon countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, French Guiana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela), During that period, these countries have accounted for 94% of the 250,618 reported cases of Plasmodium falciparum occurring in the Americas. The focal points in the PAHO Country Offices coordinate execution of activities in 6 of the 8 target countries of the Amazon basin (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela). Support for Peru and for Bolivia is provided through the USAID country programs, in coordination with PAHO. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Management Science's for Health Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus (RPM Plus), and the United States Pharmacopoeis's Drug Quality and Information (USP/DQI) program provide technical assistance in carrying out and implementing national- and regional-level activities.