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Target 3.4 - End maternal deaths due to noncommunicable diseases

    Scientific articles/Artículos científicos

      • agriculture-food-nutrition-interventionsObjectives. To identify the agriculture, food, and nutrition security interventions that facilitate sustainable food production and have a positive impact on health. Methods. Systematic review methods were used to synthesize evidence from multiple systematic reviews and economic evaluations through a comprehensive search of 17 databases and 10 websites. The search employed a pre-defined protocol with clear inclusion criteria. Both grey and peer-reviewed literature published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese between 1 January 1997 and November 2013 were included. To classify as "sustainable," interventions needed to aim to positively impact at least two dimensions of the integrated framework for sustainable development and include measures of health impact.  
      • curbing-tobacco-epidemic-americasThough the devastating health effects of tobacco use are well known, tobacco's negative repercussions extend well beyond the obvious health outcomes. Tobacco consumption creates a significant economic burden on societies because of both the high costs of health care and the associated lost productivity. In addition, tobacco use contributes to health inequalities and exacerbates poverty within and between countries through the diversion of resources away from food and other essential needs as well as through foregone income. These and other adverse consequences of the tobacco epidemic disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries, where more than 80% of the world's smokers now live, including 127 million (or 11.4%), in the Region of the Americas. 
      • curbing-tobacco-epidemic-americasSi bien son sumamente conocidos los efectos devastadores que el consumo del tabaco tiene para la salud, las repercusiones negativas del tabaco van mucho más allá de las consecuencias más obvias para la salud. El consumo de tabaco crea una carga económica considerable para las sociedades tanto por los costos elevados de la atención de salud como por la pérdida de la productividad asociada (1). Además, el consumo de tabaco agrava las desigualdades en materia de salud y exacerba la pobreza entre los países y dentro de ellos, puesto que desvía recursos que se utilizarían para alimentos y otras necesidades esenciales, además de causar una pérdida de ingresos (2). Estas y muchas otras consecuencias adversas de la epidemia del tabaquismo afectan desproporcionadamente a los países de ingresos bajos y medianos, donde hoy en día vive más del 80% de los fumadores del mundo, 127 millones de ellos (o 11,4%) en la Región de las Américas (1, 3).
      • cancer-registration-control-latin-americaCancer incidence by type has been included as a core indicator in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Monitoring Framework for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases. The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development (GICR), coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), supports low- and middle-income countries to reduce disparities in cancer information for cancer control by increasing the coverage and quality of cancer registration. 
      • impact-bullying-victimization-suicide-negative-health-behaviorsObjective. To compare the prevalence of bullying victimization, suicidal ideation, suicidal attempts, and negative health behaviors (current tobacco use, recent heavy alcohol use, truancy, involvement in physical fighting, and unprotected sexual intercourse) in five different Latin American countries and determine the association of bullying victimization with these outcomes, exploring both bullying type and frequency.  

    Technical documents/Documentos técnicos

      • paho-nutrient-profile-modelEn octubre del 2014, los Estados Miembros reunidos en el 53º Consejo Directivo de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) aprobaron por unanimidad el Plan de acción para la prevención de la obesidad en la niñez y la adolescencia. Esto muestra que los gobiernos han tomado conciencia de la prevalencia alarmante de la obesidad en la Región de las Américas - la más alta del mundo-y es además, un signo inequívoco de que los gobiernos estaban comprometidos a actuar. En el plan de acción se da instrucciones a la OPS para que proporcione información basada en la evidencia científica orientada a la formulación de políticas y reglamentaciones (tanto fiscales como de otros tipos) a fin de prevenir el consumo de alimentos poco saludables, como las relativas al etiquetado del frente del envase y guías nutricionales regionales para los alimentos en el entorno escolar (programas alimentarios, y venta de alimentos y bebidas en las escuelas). 
      • noncommunicable-disease-risk-factors-REGULAMediante el fortalecimiento de la capacidad regional en materia de regulación de los factores de riesgo de las ENT, podemos desempeñar un papel clave para alcanzar la meta de reducir los riesgos en toda América para el año 2025 y podemos cumplir la promesa de la salud como una inversión para el desarrollo. La OPS pone este documento técnico de referencia a su disposición y lo invita a participar en el fortalecimiento de la regulación de los factores de riesgo de las ENT. Cuando los jefes de Estado y de gobierno y los Ministros de Salud asumen plenamente su función de liderazgo, pueden lograr extraordinarios beneficios en pro del bienestar de sus comunidades.
      • comprehensive-cervical-cancer-controlEl cáncer cervicouterino es una de las amenazas más graves para la vida de las mujeres. Se calcula que actualmente en el mundo lo padecen más de un millón de mujeres. La mayoría de ellas no han sido diagnosticadas ni tienen acceso a un tratamiento que podría curarlas o prolongarles la vida. En el 2012 se diagnosticaron 528 000 casos nuevos, y 266 000 mujeres murieron de esta enfermedad, casi el 90% de ellas en países de ingresos bajos o medianos.

      • Economic Dimensions of Non-Communicable Disease in Latin America and the Caribbean. Disease Control Priorities. 3. ed. Companion Volume

        Economic Dimensions of Noncommunicable Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean is a companion volume to Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition (DCP3). This volume explores the relationship between and the impact of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) on development and economic growth in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). This collection of manuscripts examines the complex interplay among NCDs, health expenditures and financial investments in health, poverty, and inequities, using up-to-date information and evidence from the LAC region.

      • hyperglycemia-pregnancy-americasPreexisting diabetes and hyperglycemia first detected in pregnancy can have serious consequences for the health both of the baby and the mother; in particular, these conditions increase the risk of miscarriage and perinatal morbidity and mortality. It is estimated that one out of seven pregnant women worldwide suffers from hyperglycemia, corresponding to gestational diabetes (GDM) in 85% of cases. Up to 30% of pregnant women may be affected, but many cases of gestational diabetes are not diagnosed, with potentially fatal consequences for mother and baby. Data on the frequency of GDM is scarce: since there is no global, standardized approach to its screening and diagnosis, GDM often goes undiagnosed.
      • hyperglycemia-pregnancy-americasLa diabetes pre-existente o la hiperglucemia detectada por primera vez durante el embarazo pueden tener consecuencias graves para la salud del bebé y de la madre, en particular incrementan el riesgo de abortos espontáneos y de morbilidad y mortalidad perinatales. Se calcula que, a escala mundial, una de cada siete mujeres embarazadas puede padecer hiperglucemia, que en el 85% de los casos corresponde a diabetes gestacional (DG). La proporción de mujeres afectadas puede llegar al 30%, pero muchos casos de diabetes gestacional no se diagnostican, lo cual acarrea consecuencias potencialmente mortales para la madre y el bebé. Hay pocos datos sobre la frecuencia de DG, pues no existe un enfoque uniforme a escala mundial para su tamizaje y diagnóstico.
      • noncommunicable-disease-risk-factors-REGULAThis document, prepared under the the Organization's innovative initiative "Strengthening Regulatory Capacity in the Region of the Americas for NCD Risk Factors" (REGULA), provides an overview of the status of key noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factors in the Americas and fulfillment of international agreements that support action by Ministries of Health to protect populations from the associated risks factors. It reviews the current regulatory situation in the Region, resents the key conceptual and operational elements of effective regulation, and proposes lines of action for technical cooperation to strengthen regulatory capacity for NCDs in the Americas.
      • noncommunicable-disease-risk-factors-REGULAEste documento técnico de referência (DTR) contém uma análise ampla da situação das DCNT e seus principais fatores de risco nas Américas. Faz, também, uma revisão da base jurídica para a ação internacional e explica os conceitos básicos em torno do processo regulatório. A estrutura do trabalho e as linhas de ação recomendadas, fazem da Iniciativa REGULA um produto inovador do Departamento de Doenças Crônicas Não Transmissíveis e Saúde Mental (NMH) da OPAS. Esta iniciativa procura avaliar e fortalecer a capacidade institucional de executar intervenções sobre os fatores de risco para as DCNT, incluídas nas diferentes estratégias e acordos internacionais. Foi inspirada nas conquistas positivas da Organização no fortalecimento da regulação sobre os produtos médicos.
      • economic-dimensions-non-communicable-diseaseEconomic Dimensions of Noncommunicable Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean is a companion volume to Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition (DCP3). This volume explores the relationship between and the impact of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) on development and economic growth in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). This collection of manuscripts examines the complex interplay among NCDs, health expenditures and financial investments in health, poverty, and inequities, using up-to-date information and evidence from the LAC region. There is compelling proof that NCDs are a major and growing problem for low- and middle-income countries, and that they consume increasingly greater proportions of health care budgets. 
      • america-latina-caribe-panorama-seguridad-alimentaria-nutricionalAmérica Latina y el Caribe (ALC) se encuentra en una etapa de transición entre dos momentos clave en su desarrollo. Si bien en los últimos 20 años los países de ALC han avanzado en la prevención y control de las deficiencias nutricionales, se observa un rápido incremento en la prevalencia del sobrepeso y la obesidad que afecta a toda la población sin importar su condición económica, su lugar de residencia o su origen étnico. La coexistencia del hambre, la desnutrición, las deficiencias de micronutrientes, el sobrepeso, la obesidad se debe, entre otras causas, a la falta de acceso a una alimentación saludable que provea la cantidad de nutrientes necesarios para llevar una vida sana y activa.
      • paho-nutrient-profile-modelIn October 2014, Member States at the 53rd session of the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), unanimously approved the Plan of Action for the Prevention of Obesity in Children and Adolescents. is development reflected the awareness among governments of the alarming prevalence of obesity in the Americas-the highest in the world-and was an unequivocal sign that countries in the Region were committed to taking action. The Plan of Action mandates that PAHO provide evidence-based information for the development of fiscal and other types of policies and regulations to prevent the consumption of unhealthy foods, including front-of-package (FOP) labeling and Regional nutrition guidelines for school food environments (feeding programs and food and beverages sold in schools).
      • paho-nutrient-profile-modelEm outubro de 2014, os Estados Membros reunidos no 53º Conselho Diretor da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) aprovaram por unanimidade o Plano de Ação para Prevenção da Obesidade em Crianças e Adolescentes. Esse fato reflete a conscientização dos governos sobre a alarmante prevalência da obesidade nas Américas - a maior do mundo. A aprovação do Plano de Ação foi um sinal inequívoco de que os governos na Região estavam comprometidos a agir. O Plano de Ação determina que a OPAS forneça informações baseadas em evidências para a formulação de políticas e regulamentações fiscais e de outros tipos destinadas a evitar o consumo de alimentos não saudáveis, como as relativas à rotulagem na parte frontal das embalagens (PFE) e as diretrizes nutricionais regionais para alimentação escolar (programas de alimentação e venda de alimentos e bebidas nas escolas).
      • PAHO, Prevention of suicidal behavior, 2016

        The Mental Health and Substance Use Unit of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), in conjunction with the Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, a PAHO/WHO Collaborating Center, produced this publication, which is based on the presentations made in Mexico during the regional workshop on the prevention of suicide. This report was conceived as a practical tool that provides essential information to better understand suicidal behavior and the main strategies to combat it, from registry to the evaluation of interventions, taking into account the approaches already under way in the Region.

      • Prevencionconductasuicida ESLa Unidad de Salud Mental y Uso de Sustancias de la OPS/OMS, conjuntamente con el Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, Centro Colaborador de la OPS, elaboraron este documento tomando como base las presentaciones realizadas en el taller regional, en México, sobre prevención de la conducta suicida. Esta publicación está concebida como una herramienta práctica destinada a proveer información esencial para entender mejor las conductas suicidas y las principales estrategias para su abordaje, desde el registro hasta la evaluación de las intervenciones, tomando en cuenta experiencias en curso en la Región. Los contenidos se organizaron siguiendo una secuencia que facilita su lectura. 
      • regional-mental-health-atlasThe WHO Mental Health Atlas was first produced as the Atlas of Mental Health Resources in the World 2001 (WHO, 2001). Since then, subsequent updates have been published (WHO, 2005; WHO, 2011). The Mental Health Atlas (http://www.who.int/mental_health/ evidence/ atlas/mental health_atlas _2014/en/) provides up-to-date information on the availability of mental health services and resources across the world as well as baseline data towards meeting the established targets of the Comprehensive mental health action plan 2013-2020 (http://www.who.int/mental_health/publications/action_plan/en/). Information and data for the Mental Health Atlas are obtained via a questionnaire compiled by designated focal points in each WHO Member State.  
      •  regional-mental-health-atlasEl Atlas de salud mental de la OMS fue elaborado por primera vez en el año 2001 con el título Atlas de Recursos de Salud Mental en el Mundo 2001 (OMS, 2001). Desde entonces, se han publicado actualizaciones sucesivas (OMS, 2005; OMS, 2011). El Atlas de salud mental (http://www.who.int/ mental_health/evidence/atlas/mental_health_atlas_2014/en/) proporciona información actualizada sobre la disponibilidad de recursos y servicios de salud mental existentes en todo el mundo y provee datos básicos para alcanzar las metas establecidas en el Plan de acción integral sobre salud mental 2013-2020 (http://www.who.int/mental_health/publications/ action_plan).

      • report-tobacco-control-who-framework-conventionTobacco is the only legal consumer product that kills up to half of those who use it as intended by the manufacturer. Worldwide, it kills one person every six seconds. Tobacco use is a risk factor for six of the eight leading causes of death worldwide as well as for the four most prevalent noncommunicable diseases: cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes. Global efforts on tobacco control are setting the standard for work to reduce the burden of NCD risk factors, and many of the interventions included in the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) can be used to curb other risk factors like ultra-processed food, sugary beverages and harmful use of alcohol. 
      • report-tobacco-control-who-framework-conventionEl tabaco es el único producto legal que mata hasta la mitad de sus consumidores cuando se utiliza en la forma indicada por los fabricantes. A nivel mundial, causa la muerte de una persona cada seis segundos. El consumo de tabaco es un factor de riesgo para seis de las ocho causas principales de muerte en el mundo entero, así como para las cuatro enfermedades no trasmisibles más prevalentes: las enfermedades cardiovasculares, el cáncer, las enfermedades respiratorias crónicas y la diabetes. Los esfuerzos realizados a nivel mundial para el control del tabaco están sentando las pautas para la labor dirigida a reducir la carga de los factores de riesgo de las enfermedades no trasmisibles, y muchas de las intervenciones en el Convenio Marco de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) para el Control del Tabaco (CMCT) pueden usarse para reducir otros factores de riesgo como el consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados, bebidas azucaradas y alcohol.  
      • comprehensive-cervical-cancer-controlCervical cancer is one of the gravest threats to women's lives. It is estimated that over a million women worldwide currently have cervical cancer. Most of these women have not been diagnosed, nor do they have access to treatment that could cure them or prolong their lives. In 2012, 528 000 new cases of cervical cancer were diagnosed, and 266 000 women died of the disease, nearly 90% of them in low- to middle-income countries. Without urgent attention, deaths due to cervical cancer are projected to rise by almost 25% over the next 10 years.
      • applying-modeling-improve-health-economic-policyIn the Region of the Americas, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are a clear threat not only to human health, but also to a country's economic development and growth. The evidence on both of these counts is compelling. In 2012, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancers, chronic respiratory conditions including asthma, and other NCDs were the cause of 4.5 million deaths in the Americas. Of that total number, 1.5 million of them were premature, occurring among people aged 30-69 years. The financial impact of NCDs in the Americas is just as dismaying, with chronic diseases posing a growing threat to many nations' economic stability. According to a 2007 Lancet article, without intensified NCD prevention efforts, countries around the world could expect their gross domestic product (GDP) to decline by billions of dollars.
      • malnutrition-americas-challenges-opportunitiesRecent decades have witnessed major changes in nutritional status and trends at the global level. As we embark on the United Nations' Decade of Action on Nutrition, 50 million children under age 5 worldwide are suffering from wasting or acute malnutrition, 165 million children under 5 are stunted, and 273 million children ages 6 months to 5 years, along with 500 million women of childbearing age, are suffering from anemia. At the same time, some 41 million children under 5 are overweight (a nearly 60% increase since 1990), and 39% of adults over 18 are overweight or obese. Clearly, these numbers point to an urgent need to adapt policies and programs to more effectively address this double burden of disease. (1–5).
      • Profile of capacity and response to noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors in the Region of the Americas. Country capacity survey results, 2015The rise in noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is increasingly undermining sustainable development, especially in low- and middle-income countries which suffer the highest burden of disease. Over the past several decades, countries in the Americas have made important gains in economic and social development, as well as considerable progress in reducing vaccine preventable infectious diseases, undernutrition, access to potable water and sanitation, and improving maternal and child health outcomes. 
      • Manual mhGAP de Intervenções para Transtornos Mentais, Neurológicos e Decorrentes do Uso de Álcool e outras Drogas nos servços de atenção à saúde não especializadosObjetivos do Manual de Intervenção do mhGAP (MI-mhGAP): O MI-mhGAP foi desenvolvido para ser utilizado em serviços de atenção à saúde não especializados, e se destina a pro ssionais de saúde que trabalham em locais de atenção primárias e secundárias. Estes pro ssionais de saúde podem trabalhar em um Centro de Saúde da rede de Atenção Básica ou fazer parte de uma equipe de um hospital local ou de um ambulatório que incluem clínicos gerais, médicos da família e enfermeiras.
      • Guía de intervención mhGAP para los trastornos mentales, neurológicos y por consumo de sustancias en el nivel de atención de salud no especializada. Versión 2.0Los trastornos mentales, neurológicos y por consumo de sustancias (MNS) son muy frecuentes y representan una gran carga de enfermedad y discapacidad a nivel mundial. Subsiste una amplia brecha entre la capacidad de los sistemas de salud y los recursos disponibles, entre lo que se necesita urgentemente y lo que está disponible para reducir la carga. 
      • Health Technology Manual. Improving the Integrated Management of Chronic Diseases at the First Level of Health Care ServicesCare for persons with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is a major health priority for most countries worldwide, particularly for low-middle income countries where the problem seems to be worsening. Globally, research demonstrates that the vast majority of people with NCDs receive suboptimal care. Many people living with chronic conditions remain undiagnosed and unaware of their condition, while many others remain untreated or with inadequate control.1