Cervical cancer in low income countries continues to grow even as rates fall in high-income countries. Greater than 80% of cervical cancer cases occur in low and middle income countries. This disparity is primarily due to limited access of prevention, screening and treatment services in low resource countries.
Although Papanicolaou test (PAP smear) tests are the preferred screening tool, sonography can be used to assess the uterus, ovaries, and adnexa for any changes that would suggest abnormalities and disease. An ultrasound exam evaluates external aspects of the uterus and cervix such as the contour and size, and the internal surfaces such as the endometrial and endocervical lining for abnormal thickness.
Cervical cancer leads to changes to the size and normal sonographic pattern of the cervix. Utilizing color Doppler imaging can add specificity to cancer diagnosis by demonstrating increased blood flow commonly found with tumor invasion and infiltration.