HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) is the ability of HIV to mutate and reproduce in the presence of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. The consequences of drug resistance include treatment failure; the transmission of drug resistant HIV; as well as increased direct and indirect costs, for patients and health systems, due to more expensive second- and third-line ARV drugs. PAHO/WHO recommend a public health approach to HIVDR based on a comprehensive package of tools that should be implemented in all countries scaling-up and maintaining populations on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The WHO strategy includes:Monitoring HIV drug resistance Early Warning Indicators (EWI) Surveillance of HIV drug resistance in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (pre-treatment HIV drug resistance) Surveillance of HIV drug resistance in adults receiving ART Surveys of HIV drug resistance in children less than 18 months of age WHO/HIVResNet HIV drug resistance laboratory operational framework
Visit the WHO HIV drug resistance website for more information.