HIV Drug Resistance

HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) is the ability of HIV to mutate and reproduce in the presence of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. The consequences of drug resistance include treatment failure; the transmission of drug resistant HIV; as well as increased direct and indirect costs, for patients and health systems, due to more expensive second- and third-line ARV drugs. PAHO/WHO recommend a public health approach to HIVDR based on a comprehensive package of tools that should be implemented in all countries scaling-up and maintaining populations on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The WHO strategy includes:

Monitoring HIV drug resistance Early Warning Indicators (EWI) Surveillance of HIV drug resistance in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (pre-treatment HIV drug resistance) Surveillance of HIV drug resistance in adults receiving ART Surveys of HIV drug resistance in children less than 18 months of age WHO/HIVResNet HIV drug resistance laboratory operational framework

Visit the WHO HIV drug resistance website for more information.