Behavior and social inequalities in prioritized indicators of Sustainable Development Goal 3 in Bolivia

Enríquez Nava et al.


To describe the behavior and social inequalities in prioritized indicators of Sustainable Development Goal 3 (ODS-3) among subpopulations and departments of Bolivia.


An analysis of the behavior of selected ODS-3 indicators over time was conducted. In addition, a study of social inequalities in these indicators was carried out for selected equity stratifiers. Simple measures (absolute gap and relative gap) and complex measures (slope inequality index and concentration index) were obtained to explore the magnitude of social inequalities.


The ODS-3 indicators that have increased significantly at the national and departmental levels are the prevalence of four prenatal controls and the prevalence of births attended by qualified health personnel. Social inequalities in these indicators have decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of adolescent pregnancy and its social inequalities have remained unchanged, although with low inequalities. The prevalence
of modern contraceptive methods use has decreased slightly, although social inequality has declined more rapidly. The maternal mortality rate has decreased nationally and in most departments, but social inequality on this indicator still needs to be addressed.


National averages hide differences between subpopulations and departments in Bolivia. The findings show that the behavior and social inequality of some ODS-3 indicators have improved, but regarding other indicators interventions by different stakeholders must be strengthened to reduce social inequalities in health.

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