Describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics and resistance profile of cases of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) diagnosed in Peru from 2013 to 2015.
This descriptive study included patients who met the definition of XDR-TB and were reported to the national epidemiological surveillance system of Peru’s Ministry of Health. It used a descriptive analysis and, to identify spatial distribution, a heat map based on kernel density estimation.
It was estimated that XDR-TB cases diagnosed as new represented 7.3% of all multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases reported during the study period; 74% of patients were aged 15 to 44 years old; and the male-female ratio was 1.7. Half of the country’s departments reported at least one case of XDR-TB, and 42% of new cases had no history of resistance or previous treatment. In the other half of the departments, the majority had previous MDR and pre-XDR resistance. Among the cases, 57.7% presented resistance to 5 and 7 first- and second-line drugs and 41.6% presented resistance to 8 and 10 drugs.
This study offers important details of the epidemiological profile of XDR-TB in Peru, where there has been an increase in cases of primary XDR-TB; that is, cases with no prior history of disease. Furthermore, this form of tuberculosis has spread to a greater number of departments in the country.