Evidence synthesis: guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of dengue, chikungunya, and zika in the Region of the Americas

Organización Panamericana de la Salud


Dengue, chikungunya, and Zika are viral diseases that pose a constant threat to public health. These three arboviruses can produce very similar clinical pictures, which represents a challenge to achieving an accurate clinical diagnosis and can lead to inadequate management and even fatal outcomes. Guidelines for the Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment of Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika is part of the effort by the Pan American Health Organization and the countries of the Region of the Americas to prevent severe cases and death from these diseases in a complex epidemiological context in which multiple factors favor transmission dynamics and lead to outbreaks and epidemics in the countries of the Region.


Synthesize the recommendations in the PAHO guidelines, published in 2022, in order to present appropriate diagnosis and treatment of these arboviruses and to address aspects of the implementation of the recommendations.


The guidelines and their recommendations were synthesized. In addition, a systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Lilacs, Health Systems Evidence, Epistemonikos, and gray literature for studies done in the Region of the Americas, in order to identify barriers, facilitators, and implementation strategies. Process and outcome indicators for the implementation of the recommendations were identified and formulated.


We present 12 recommendations applicable to adult and pediatric patients with suspected or confirmed dengue, chikungunya, or Zika, along with barriers, facilitators, and strategies for their implementation.


The recommendations provide strategies for timely diagnosis and treatment of acute cases of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, as well as considerations for implementation of the strategies.

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