Evaluate the level of adherence to guidelines on surgical prophylaxis in health facilities in Argentina and the determinants of non-adherence.
Cross-sectional multicenter study in 35 centers in Argentina. The level of adherence to guidelines and the forms of non-adherence were determined and these were compared based on the characteristics of the indicated antibiotic, anesthesiologist, surgery, and facility, as well as patient age. An adjusted logistic regression model was used.
A total of 1,083 surgical procedures were reviewed. Adherence to guidelines was 67%. The most frequent forms of non-adherence were: incorrect antibiotic (28.9%), unnecessary prophylaxis (25.5%), and prolonged prophylaxis (24.4%). Adherence to guidelines was higher in persons under 18 years of age (84.9% compared to 65.5%, p < 0.001). According to the type of health coverage (social welfare, private insurance, public coverage, or community coverage), adherence was 33.3%, 64.4%, 78.8%, and 83.3%, respectively;
p < 0.001. According to population (maternal and child, pediatric, specific pathologies, and general pathologies), adherence was 97.9%, 97.2%, 89.4%, and 63.2%, respectively; p < 0.001. Adherence was highest in neurosurgery (91.1%), obstetrics (82.4%), and cardiovascular surgery (72.9%), and lowest in otorhinolaryngology (47.8%), ophthalmology (50%), and urology (55.9%) (p < 0.001). The adjusted analysis showed the highest adherence to guidelines in persons under 18 (odds ratio [OR]: 4.97; 95% confidence interval [CI 95]: 1.13-21.80); emergency surgery (OR: 2.18; CI 95: 1.11-4.26); and public, private, and community facilities
(OR: 9.35; CI 95: 3.85-22.70). Adherence was also higher in facilities for maternal and child care and specific pathologies (OR: 10.52; CI 95, 1.30-85.12), cardiovascular surgery, neurosurgery, obstetrics (OR: 2.73; CI 95:1.55-4.78), and facilities with programs to optimize the use of antimicrobial drugs (OR 1.95; CI 95, 1.10-3.45).
Adherence to guidelines was 67%. Incorrect, unnecessary, and prolonged use of antibiotics were the most frequent forms of non-adherence. Adherence was higher with younger patients, where programs exist to optimize the use of antimicrobial drugs, where there is private or public health coverage, with the pediatric population, for specific pathologies, in emergency surgery, and in certain specialties.