To describe the current scenario of oral health in quilombola communities in Brazil.
A search was performed in the Virtual Health Library (VHL), PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, and SciELO, without date limits. Articles published in English, Portuguese, or Spanish were included if they described research performed in Brazil to investigate oral health in individuals self-declared as belonging to officially recognized quilombola communities. The quality of evidence of included studies was analyzed.
Fourteen studies were selected for inclusion, all with cross-sectional design and classified as level IV scientific evidence (evidence from descriptive studies or studies with a qualitative approach), i.e., moderate-low quality. Six were developed in the Northeast region of Brazil and nine were published between 2016 and 2021. Regarding oral health problems, a high frequency was detected for dental caries, with high indices of disease experience. Edentulism and periodontal disease were also frequent, affecting youth, adults, and older individuals.
A high prevalence of dental caries, edentulism, and periodontal disease was observed, supporting the need to improve dental care in this population group.