To analyze the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic in Latin American and Caribbean countries in its first 90 days and its association with variables related to public health measures, and demographic, health and social characteristics.
The trend in new daily cases and the crude mortality rate (CMR) from COVID-19 were analyzed through the Joinpoint regression analysis methodology, using the Joinpoint Regression Program 126.96.36.199. Data was obtained from the Our World in Data registry. A multiple correspondence analysis was performed between the public health measures adopted in each country to face the COVID-19 pandemic (measured through the stringency index, Oxford University) and sanitary, demographic and social conditions, and the results of the evolution of the pandemic. SPSS software was used.
The Joinpoint regression analysis showed that the highest increase in the number of cases was observed in Brazil (11.3%) and the highest increase in CMR in Mexico (16.2%). The multiple correspondence analysis showed that CMR was associated with the total population, the stringency index, the level of urbanization, the proportion of the population living on less than one dollar a day, the prevalence of diabetes and the
number of hospital beds.
The countries of the region show a heterogeneous evolution in the incidence of COVID-19. This heterogeneity is associated with both the public health measures adopted, as well as with the population size, poverty levels and pre-existing health systems.