The objective of this study was to adapt and validate the health belief model scale for testicular cancer and testicular self-examination (TSE) in university students in Mexico and to determine the sociodemographic, clinical, and health belief model variables that influence TSE performance. Translation and back translation were conducted, and 72 items were obtained and reviewed by experts, following which 39 items were selected and applied to a group of 30 students to assess comprehension and application time. Finally, this version was applied to 803 students at a public university. A scale consisting of 38 items was obtained, and the items were divided across six factors consistent with the health belief model: susceptibility (α = 0.77), seriousness (α = 0.82), benefits (α = 0.80), barriers (α = 0.83), self-efficacy (α = 0.88), and health motivation (α = 0.71). These factors explain 44% of the variance and show an internal consistency ranging from acceptable to good. The variable that most strongly influenced the performance of testicular self-examination was self-efficacy. The Spanish-language version of the health belief model scale for testicular cancer and testicular self-examination yielded evidence of validity and reliability in this sample of university students.
Juárez-García et al.