- Overall Context
- Leading Health Challenges
- Health Situation and Trends
- Full Article
Uruguay is located to the east of Argentina and to the south of Brazil; its territory extends for 176,215 km2 and it has a maritime area of 205,057 km2. The country has a rolling topography and subtropical climate; its ecosystems include grasslands, coastal environments, wetlands, mountain areas, and forests. Uruguay is a unitary state and is divided into 19 departments. It has a democratic republican form of government, with three independent branches (executive, legislative, and judicial). The departmental governments are composed of an Administrator (Intendente) and a Departmental Board.
In 2016 Uruguay had an estimated population of 3,444,000 (). Afro-descendents were the main ethnic-racial minority (8.1%), followed by those citing indigenous ancestry (5.1%) (); 95.3% of the population lives in urban areas, concentrated in Montevideo’s greater metropolitan area.
The aging of the population is characterized by a low birth rate (13.5 births per 1,000 population) and increased life expectancy at birth (80.2 years for women and 73 years for men for the 2011-2015 period) (Table 1). The over-65 age group grew from 7.6% of the total population at the time of the 1963 census to 14.1% in the 2011 census, while the proportion of those under age 15 declined from 28.2% to 21.8%. Uruguay is at the end of its “demographic bonus,” and within a few years the dependency rate will be rising toward a new balance more challenging than the current one (). Annual population growth for 2016 was 0.4%, while the total fertility rate was 2.0 children per woman. In 2014, the economically active population (EAP) was 51.9% of the total population (). Figure 1 shows the evolution of Uruguay’s population structure between 1990 and 2015.
Figure 1. Population structure, by age and sex, Uruguay, 1990 and 2015
Between 1990 and 2015, Uruguay’s population increased by 10.3%. In 1990, the demographic structure was that of a relatively narrow pyramid, with an age distribution reflecting increased life expectancy and an aging population. By 2015, the structure had become regressive, as there had been a marked increase, in the fertility rate in the intervening 25 years, while the mortality rate had declined.
Source: Pan American Health Organization, based on data from the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 2015 Revision. New York; 2015.
Table 1. Demographic indicators, by sex, Uruguay, 1996 2015
|Children under 15 (%)||25.90||23.60||25.40||22.90||24.30||21.80||22.70||20.30|
|Adults over 65 (%)||10.00||13.90||10.30||14.50||10.50||14.90||10.70||15.20|
|Life expectancy at birth||70.40||78.40||71.50||78.90||72.30||79.70||73.20||80.20|
|Annual growth (%)||0.64||0.01||0.26||0.39|
|Natural growth (%)||0.78||0.59||0.47||0.39a|
|Total fertility rate (children/woman)||2.30||2.10||2.00||1.90|
|Birth rate (per 1,000 inhabitants)||17.10||15.40||14.10||13.50|
|Mortality (per 1,000 inhabitants)||9.30||9.40||9.40||9.60|
Note: Based on data of from the National Statistics Institute (INE) of Uruguay. Estimates and Projections, 1996-2050. 2013 Revision.
a The INE does not show migratory data for this period. Thus, the annual growth rate coincides with the natural rate.
Source: Levcovitz E, Fernández Galeano M, Benia W. Perfil del Sistema de salud. Monitoreo y análisis de los procesos de cambio. Montevideo: PAHO; 2016.
Social Determinants of Health
Uruguay ranks 52nd in the 2015 Human Development Index (HDI) (). Since 2005, laws have been passed to ensure rights such as same-sex marriage and legal abortion, while providing for quotas and positive discrimination in the civil service for people of African descent. That year also marked the beginning of a process of transforming the health system, leading to the creation of the country’s Integrated National Health System (SNIS) (). In 2005-2015, the population’s quality of life improved steadily, as reflected in indicators of access to goods and social services, distribution of wealth, employment, infant mortality, and poverty, among other factors.
The creation of the National Institution of Human Rights and Office of the Ombudsman (INDDHH), through Law 18,446 of 2008, represents substantive progress with regard to human rights. The National Institute of Women (INMUJERES) is the principal agency responsible for gender equality policy. However, there continue to be disparities. Based on the gender distribution in the 2015-2020 legislature, women have a 17.69% representation in the country’s political life. This represents an increase from 14.1% in 2010-2015 and from 10.77% in 2005-2010 (), demonstrating a gradual narrowing of the gap. Young women have a disproportionately small role in decision-making activities (approximately 30%) ().
In 2004, social spending represented 19.5% of gross domestic product (GDP), while the figure was 24.1% in 2011, reflecting a sustained increase in funding for social projects. In urban areas, poverty, as measured by income, declined from 39.9% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2014, while extreme poverty took a similar course, decreasing from 4.7% to 0.3% in the same period. The national minimum wage rose from US$80 in 2005 to US$334 in 2015 (). Major inequalities continue to exist between different geographic areas. Notably, poverty in Montevideo is 13.4%, compared with 7.3% in the rest of the country. The infantilization of poverty is notable, with poverty continuing to most sharply affect the youngest age groups—particularly the under-13 group. While the incidence of poverty is 7.8% in the 18- to 64-year-old population, it is 20.6% among children under the age of 6. And although it has narrowed, the gap persists, especially in the population of African descent. In 2014, the incidence of poverty for this group was 23.1%, while the incidence in the rest of the population was 9.0%. In 2006, the respective figures were 55% and 30% ().
With regard to income quintiles, 50.7% of income went to the wealthiest 20% of households in 2006 and 4.9% to the poorest 20%. As of 2014, income in the first quintile had risen by 1.4%, while that of the wealthiest quintile had fallen by 6% (). Although gender gaps are not significant in this indicator (9.9% for women versus 9.4% for men in 2014), they are higher in the 18-49 age bracket, where women of reproductive age are concentrated.
In 2015, the labor force participation rate for people above the poverty line was 64.2%, while the rate for those below the poverty line was 58.3%, with the gap greatest in rural areas, where there is a difference of 10.8 percentage points (65.9% versus 55.1%) (). The greatest concentration of households below the poverty line (more than 8%) is in the departments on the northeastern coast of the country and in the capital, while the lowest levels are in the southern departments (Colonia, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, San José, and Soriano) ().
Between 2005 and 2013, the State’s education budget rose from 3.2% to 4.8% of GDP, allowing for an expansion of early childhood care and education. Among children 3 to 5 years old, attendance at educational facilities was 85.4%, while the figure was 99.3% in the 6-11 age bracket. The national illiteracy rate was 1.6% (). Although the net secondary school enrollment rate rose by 7.4 percentage points between 2006 and 2014, the 78.5% figure for the latter year shows that over 20% of the country’s adolescents are still not attending secondary school.
There has been progress in the creation of a digital society. The Ceibal Plan, which provided computers for all of the country’s primary school students, was extended to high school and technology-education institutions in 2010. In 2015, the Ibirapitá Plan was implemented to promote the digital inclusion of older persons, and 2016 saw the delivery of 100,000 tablets to retirees.
In 2011, unemployment declined to a historical low of barely 6.5%. High indices of informality persist, above all in the youngest and poorest segments of the population. In 2014, female unemployment continued to be higher than for males (8.4% versus 5.1%) (). Moreover, women received 20% less income than men with equal amounts of schooling.
Although the population living in irregular settlements has dropped, 165,000 people still live in these conditions. With regard to unmet basic needs (UBN) in housing, the population of African descent is at a greater than 12 percentage point disadvantage with respect to the rest of the population ().
The Health System
Management and care changed from a curative social welfare model to a preventive model based on the principles of primary health care (PHC). Funding incentives have not been sufficient to produce significant movement toward a care model that provides uniform quality of care for the entire covered population. Moreover, progress has been slow in assigning users to providers, and in ensuring that users choose a physician assigned to their respective population groups—goals set by the SNIS institutions. Interinstitutional and intersectoral coordination have benefited from the creation of the Social Cabinet and the Council for the Coordination of Social Policy, as well as from mechanisms for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) agreed to by the country.
The structural transformation of Uruguay’s health system began in 2007 with the passage of Law 18,211, which established the SNIS. In order to move toward achieving the regional objective of universal access and coverage, innovative forms of organization and operation were developed, with substantive changes in funding, management, and care models. These changes were accompanied by tax reform and the development of a new social protection matrix designed to redistribute income. Along with the structural reforms were: (i) an extensive social protection network using noncontributory transfers conditional on meeting obligations in health and education (guaranteed minimum income [salario ciudadano] and family allowances); (ii) provision of a food card for basic nutritional needs; (iii) promotion of jobs for young people and women; and (iv) universalization of early education and physical education.
The SNIS constitutes the organizational and functional structure for a care network encompassing all public and nonprofit private services (mutual associations and medical cooperatives). The National Health Fund (FONASA) is a central part of the funding model. As a mandatory pooled public fund, it involves a tripartite mechanism whereby those insured contribute based on income, employers contribute in proportion to wages paid, and the State’s general fund supplements these, in order to bring to reality the benefits package for the entire population provided for in the Comprehensive Health Care Plan (PIAS).
The collective nature of the insurance is reflected in the system of risk-adjusted reimbursement to SNIS providers. In June 2016, coverage reached 73% of the country’s population. Lastly, the strategy for creation of the SNIS emphasized gradually moving toward guaranteed and unrestricted universal coverage.
Leading Health Challenges
Critical Health Problems
The Ministry of Public Health established National Health Objectives for 2020. In defining the objectives, it began by identifying an initial list of critical problems that affect health, including unwanted pregnancy in adolescents, premature birth and low birthweight, high rates of cesarean section, vertical transmission of syphilis and HIV, and early childhood developmental impairments and nutritional problems.
In 2010, the Ministry created a human resources division to prioritize the development and training of health workers. The model features a dual component of education and training for health workers, along with management of human resources in health, with a view to orienting services toward primary care.
In 2012, the density of human resources in health was 63 per 10,000 population, well above the 25 per 10,000 figure proposed in the Regional Goals for Human Resources for Health 2007-2015 of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Nurses and midwives were underrepresented, with the proportion of providers distributed as follows: 73.2% physicians, 23.8% nurses, and 3.0% midwives (). The priority lines of work were: harmonizing remunerations and addressing conflict management; establishing a human resources information system; developing the nursing field; and working to meet the regional goals for human resources in health. The principal components include: (i) the Uruguay node of the Virtual Public Health Campus (VPHC); (ii) curriculum reform at the undergraduate and graduate levels to adapt to changes in the care model, (iii) training in health system management at the national and departmental levels and in integrated health services networks; and (iv) new profiles for primary care professionals and certain key specialties.
Health Knowledge, Technology, and Information
The University of the Republic (UDELAR), through its medical school, as well as the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), orients its scientific output to the sector’s needs and demands. The ANII has a National Strategic Plan for Science, Technology, and Innovation (PENCTI), which established the National System of Researchers and created the Timbó website, providing free nationwide access to Uruguayan and foreign scientific publications.
For years, health technologies have been evaluated, with a view to enhancing the technical capacity for introducing new technologies, such as diagnostic and therapeutic techniques and high-cost drugs. Skills have also been developed to facilitate technology transfer, innovation, and proper management of intellectual property, encouraging networked collaboration to bring together different agencies, technical cooperation opportunities, and the ANII, including various generations of sectoral funds.
There is very high penetration of telecommunications in Uruguay. There is extensive internet access (wired and mobile), as well as widespread cable television; the entire country receives radio station signals; and over 90% of the population has access to broadcast TV. The quality of the country’s vital statistics is excellent, and electronic certificates have been in place for live births since 2010, and for deaths since 2016.
The Environment and Human Security
Deforestation and Soil Degradation
Native natural forest formations (mountains) cover 3.7% of the national territory. Forest Law 15,939 protects forests from clearcutting and lays the foundations for industrial forestation and its management. Nearly one million hectares are planted with pine and eucalyptus for cellulose production. Responsible Soil Use and Management Plans must be prepared, submitted, and approved before certain actions or activities are carried out. Moderate erosion affects 6.8% of the Uruguayan territory, and 2% of the territory is subject to severe erosion.
Uruguay has generally good air quality, due to geographic, climatic, and technological factors, and to the effects of public policy. Nevertheless, rural areas continue to have problems related to roads with loose material, industrial complexes, and waste-burning in landfills and dumps.
Among the strategic measures designed to improve air quality are surveillance and monitoring of the air quality baseline, as well as permanent monitoring of significant sources, along with promotion of renewable energy sources, as called for in Energy Policy 2030. Wind energy, which had not exceeded 1% of the energy supply up to February 2014, provided 16% of generated electricity in 2015. At the same time, the implementation of a desulphurization plant at the oil refinery made it possible to considerably reduce the level of sulfur in the fuels being produced ().
Persistent Organic Pollutants
Law 17,732 ratified the Stockholm Convention. The Ministry of Housing, Land Management, and Environment (MVOTMA), with participation by ministries and other public and private entities and social organizations, developed the National Plan for Implementation of the Stockholm Convention; by 2016, the first action plan and the inclusion of new persistent organic pollutants were already being reviewed.
Natural and Manmade Disasters
The National Emergency and Disaster System (SINAE) coordinates various institutions and sectors, along with a network of coordination centers dealing with departmental emergencies (CECOED), linking various aspects of emergency and disaster risk management, principally involving seasonal fluvial flooding, droughts, forest fires, and, recently, tornados ().
Management and handling of urban solid waste is overseen by the departmental administrations. As of 2005, the Montevideo and Metropolitan Area Solid Waste Master Plan (PDRS) covers waste generated in the country’s metropolitan area, including urban solid waste and specialized solid wastes. It is estimated that, in Montevideo alone, the informal sector collects 40% of the waste ().
Problems of malnutrition, due to both deficits and excesses, persist in Uruguay. Food intake typically features excessive salt, saturated fats, trans fats, refined sugars, and limited fiber. The diet tends to be poor in essential micronutrients, bioactive substances from fruits, vegetables and grains, and minerals. The “Uruguay Grows with You” office of the Ministry of Social Development (MIDES) works throughout the country’s population to promote a comprehensive system for protection in early childhood. Various programs of the Ministry (MIDES) and of the National Food Institute (INDA) address these health problems. The incidence of foodborne diseases is low. Work requiring cooperative effort is facilitated by coordination between various institutions: the Ministry of Public Health; the Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture, and Fisheries; the departmental administrations; and the Technological Laboratory of Uruguay (LATU). As a result of extensive vaccination, Uruguay is free of foot-and-mouth disease, as certified by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE).
Along with economic growth and declining unemployment, there are signs of increased immigration and an uptick in the flow of returning Uruguayan emigrants. In 2014, a total of 3,755 residence permits were granted, of which 2,785 were for immigrants from other countries in the Region, 783 for immigrants from Europe, and the remainder for immigrants from other continents (). With regard to internal migration, the migratory flow has historically been toward Montevideo. Beginning in the 1960s, there was growing migration to the department of Canelones, which includes the metropolitan area. Currently, the country’s fastest growing department is Maldonado, where the population tends to be concentrated on the banks of the river Río de la Plata.
Monitoring the Health System’s Organization, Provision of Care, and Performance
The SNIS was created through five laws, between 2005 and 2007. Law 17,930, the National Budget legislation for 2005-2010, establishes the entity’s broad programmatic lines; Law 18,131 created FONASA; Law 18,161 decentralized the State Health Services Administration (ASSE); Law 18,335 guarantees the rights and defines the duties of users; and Law 18,211 provides a comprehensive definition of the principles and organizational and functional configuration of the SNIS, establishing the new funding model.
Since 2008, implementation of the SNIS has improved the country’s health outlook, reducing the segmentation that created sharp inequities, and making the system more stable. Within this framework, the National Health Objectives (OSN) 2020 were defined, in order to: (i) improve the population’s health status; (ii) reduce unequal exercise of the right to health; (iii) improve the quality of the processes involved in providing care; and (iv) create the conditions needed for the health care experience to be a positive one for users.
The Ministry of Public Health has nondelegable leadership responsibilities for oversight, essential public health functions, regulation, and the authorizing and accreditation of health services and professionals. The National Health Board (JUNASA)—composed of the Ministry of Public Health as chair, the Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF), the Social Security Bank (BPS), provider institutions, worker representatives, and representatives of the SNIS’s users—monitors coverage, coordinates funding, and regulates compliance with standards on the delivery of services. At the departmental level, governance is supplemented by departmental health boards whose decisions are non-binding. The legislation delegated FONASA’s administrative management and accounting to the BPS, while the Ministry’s leadership functions were separated from its health services provision function, so as to clearly delimit its areas of authority.
In addition, the State Health Services Administration (ASSE) was created as a decentralized entity, under a management model that includes participatory instruments and societal control over management by workers and users. Transformation of the health system significantly reduced inequality as measured by the Gini coefficient (which dropped from 0.4628 to 0.4526), while building consensus and guaranteeing extensive governance control, as measured by all public opinion studies carried out since 2008, which showed approval ratings of between 65% and 80%.
Between 2007 and 2014, health spending grew 53%, reaching nearly US$4.9 billion in the latter year, or 8.6% of the GDP and 45% of per capita expenditure on health. In 2007, 53% of spending was financed by public funds; by 2014, the figure had reached approximately 70%. Moreover, social protection for health expanded to cover the entire family unit and the full life cycle. At the same time, the mechanism for payments to comprehensive health providers was changed to a risk-adjusted capitation system, with additional payments to reward meeting care objectives. This supplementary payment for achieving goals constitutes 8% of the “health premium.” It is paid when the relevant achievement is verified. The public subsector—essentially the ASSE—was also strengthened; its annual budget rose from US$190 million in 2005 to approximately US$1.1 billion in 2014. In 2005, monthly spending per user in the private sector was US$50, versus US$14 in ASSE—a 3 to 1 ratio). In 2016, expenditure per user was nearly the same in the two sectors. Further, FONASA’s National Resource Fund (FNR) has become an important mechanism for centralized, supplementary, and (financially and institutionally) independent insurance, providing coverage for an extensive package of highly specialized medical services.
Health Situation and Trends
Health of Population Groups
Maternal and Reproductive Health
The maternal mortality ratio is one of the lowest in the Region. From 38 per 100,000 live births (LB) in 1991 it had dropped to 18.6 per 100,000 LB by 2014, a 51% reduction. The prevalence of contraceptive use in 2011-2014 was 77%. In 2015, the percentage of deliveries carried out in hospitals was 99.7%, while the percentage of deliveries attended by trained personnel was 96% (). In 2013, at the national level, the incidence of congenital syphilis was 2.08 cases per 1,000 births (). With regard to HIV/AIDS, vertical transmission represented 1.6% of reported cases, less than the regional elimination goal (< 2%). In 2010, guidelines for health care services and sexual and reproductive health services at institutional providers were published.
In 2014, premature births represented 9% of total births, and newborns with low birthweight (less than 1,500g) represented 1% of the total. Growth retardation (low height for age) is a common problem in early childhood. Nevertheless, there have been great advances through efforts for intersectoral coordination, such as the National Strategy for Childhood and Adolescence (ENIA 2010-2030), the “Uruguay Grows with You” program, and the National Perinatal and Early Childhood Health Plan (2011) of the Ministry’s National Nutrition Program.
Health of schoolchildren (6-12 Years Old)
A political and social consensus has developed regarding the prevention of childhood obesity and on reducing the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs). In 2013, Law 19,140, “Healthy Food in Public Educational and Private Educational Facilities” was passed; in this context the Ministry has prepared “Nutritional guidelines for supplying food and beverages” and “Recommendations for best practices in implementing healthy cafeterias” for educational facilities.
Health of Adolescents (13-17 Years Old)
Adolescent pregnancy is a significant social and health problem for the country. The percentage of pregnant adolescents remained stable (close to 16%) from 1996 to 2014, standing at 16.4% in the latter year (7,951 births by mothers between the ages of 10 and 19). Of young women (15 to 19 years old) with two or more UBNs, 22.4% were mothers, while the figure for those with satisfied basic needs (SBS) was 3.6% (). Data from 2013 indicate that the percentage of teenage mothers was 14.2% for women of African descent, versus 9.1% for women not indicating Afrodescendent ancestry ().
Suicide also is an important problem in this age group: 10.1% of adolescents reported having attempted suicide one or more times in the last 12 months ().
Health of Adults
Chronic noncommunicable diseases (CNCDs) are responsible for 60% of all deaths, and for 62% of deaths among people 30 to 69 years old. In 2015, the prevalence of risk factors in the adult urban population (ages 25 to 64) was 64.9% for overweight or obesity, 36.6% for hypertension, and 21.5% for high cholesterol (). Among the 15 highest ranking pathologies responsible for years of life lost (YLL) in 2015, 10 were CNCDs, and among the 15 highest ranking pathologies responsible for years of potential life lost (YPLLD) from disabilities, 5 were in this same group (). In the over-50 population, cataracts (48.6%) and glaucoma (14.3%) were the principal causes of blindness. Studies for 2013 indicate that the prevalence of severe visual disability was 0.9%, while the prevalence of moderate visual disability was 7.9% ().
Health the Elderly (65 Years Old and Older)
Under the law, the Ministry is the regulatory entity for health policy affecting older adults, a population whose coverage through FONASA increased exponentially between 2011 and 2016. The National Aging and Old Age Plan 2016-2019 includes a chapter on older persons’ right to health, with emphasis on improving the quality of care, specific care (promotion of geriatric assessment units at providers), health promotion, human resources training, and care for older people with mental health problems. In the latter category, since 2015 Uruguay has had a list of “Recommendations for a comprehensive approach to dementia.” This was developed by the Ministry, and is national and interdisciplinary in scope. It is estimated that 11.5% of older persons are dependent (need other people for basic daily activities). Establishment of the Integrated National Care System (SNIC), designed to provide social assistance, is considered an important additional advance for the health sector.
Health of Workers
Regulation under International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention 155 has led to joint committees that are being implemented sector-by-sector. In occupational health there have been changes, such as Law 19,196, on criminal responsibility for businesses. Figures on work-related accidents show a steady annual decline (54,000 nationwide in 2011; 53,000 in 2012; 51,730 in 2013; and 51,186 in 2014).
Health of Indigenous Populations
Work is being carried out with the Afrodescendent population on HIV/AIDS and women’s sexual and reproductive rights. In 2013, Law 19,122, “Standards to encourage participation in the areas of education and labor,” was passed to implement affirmative action in the public and private sectors for people of African descent.
Health of the Disabled
According to the 2011 census, 17% of the total population (517,771 individuals) reported having at least one disability. Of these, 70.5% reported a slight disability, 25% a moderate disability, and 4.5% a severe disability (). Since 2010, policy within the state structure has been overseen by the Honorary National Commission on Disability (CNHD), which reports to MIDES.
The overall mortality rate in 2014 was 9.5 per 1,000 inhabitants (32,120 deaths), a figure that has varied little for decades. The four leading causes of death account for approximately 70% of all deaths and are linked to CNCDs and to external causes (Table 2). There is no under-reporting of deaths; ill-defined or unknown causes represented 8.8% of deaths in 2014 (). Mortality from diseases of the circulatory system shows a sustained decline, as does mortality from ischemic heart disease (from 75.2% in 2010 to 66.0% in 2014). Meanwhile, cerebrovascular disease as a cause of death declined from 83.60% to 71.41% in the same period (), for a 14.6 percentage-point reduction.
Table 2. Ten leading causes of death (percentages of total deaths),a Uruguay, 1998 2014
|Diseases of the circulatory system||(I00-I99)||34.1||33.0||30.5||27.5|
|Diseases of the respiratory system||(J00-J99)||8.9||9.3||9.9||10.2|
|External causes of morbidity and of mortality||(V01-Y98)||6.7||6.1||6.5||7.3|
|Diseases of the digestive system||(K00-K93)||4.0||3.8||4.0||4.1|
|Diseases of the nervous system||(G00-G99)||2.6||3.8||4.2||3.7|
|Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic disorders||(E00-E90)||2.8||3.0||3.1||3.6|
|Diseases of the genitourinary system||(N00-N99)||1.7||1.9||2.4||3.1|
|Mental and behavioral disorders||(F00-F99)||2.8||2.0||2.1||2.2|
|Infectious and parasitic diseases||(A00-B99)||2.1||2.1||2.1||2.2|
Note: The causes are shown with their International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision (ICD-10).
a Values are percentages of relative frequency.
Source: Levcovitz E, Fernández Galeano M, Benia W. Perfil del sistema de salud. Monitoreo y análisis de los procesos de cambio. Montevideo: PAHO; 2016.
Among women, the leading cause of death was breast cancer, followed by colorectal cancer and, third, lung cancer. In men, despite a major reduction, lung cancer ranked first, followed by colorectal cancer and prostate cancer ().
In 2014, motor vehicle accidents were the leading cause of death in the 15- to 24-year-old age group (20.17 deaths per 100,000), with a large difference between men and women (33.21 per 100,000 for men versus 6.65 per 100,000 for women). Suicide ranked second (18.44 per 100,000), also with a large difference between men and women (29.44 per 100,000 versus 7.04 per 100,000, respectively), making the risk for men four times greater than for women, and rising (the figure for men was 14.68 per 100,000 in 2005) ().
In 2015, the infant mortality rate was 7.5 per 1,000 live births (Table 3), while neonatal mortality was 5 per 1,000 live births. Thus, the goal of reducing infant mortality by two-thirds by 2015, as proposed in the MDGs, has been met.
Table 3. Infant mortality and its components, by mother’s place of residence, Uruguay, 2015
|Rate (per 1,000 live births)|
|Department||Early neonatal||Late neonatal||Post-neonatal||Total|
|City of Artigas||3.1||3.1||3.1||9.4|
|Treinta y Tres||3.2||1.6||3.2||7.9|
Source: Division of Epidemiology, General Directorate of Environmental Health and Food Safety (DIGESA), Ministry of Public Health (MSP).Vital statistics. Montevideo: MSP; 2015.
In 1990, the neonatal mortality rate was 12.2 per 1,000 live births. Thus, the rate declined by 59% between 1990 and 2015. The leading causes were disorders of the perinatal period linked to prematurity (52.1%) and congenital malformations (28.7%). Of neonatal deaths, 60% occurred in the early neonatal period. Mortality in children under 5 was of 23.4 per 1,000 live births in 1990, and 8.7 per 1,000 live births in 2015 ().
In terms of vector-borne diseases, the first autochthonous cases of dengue were diagnosed in 2016. An intense campaign for prevention and control of Aedes aegypti, as well as to increase awareness in the population, limited the outbreak to 20 laboratory-confirmed autochthonous cases. No autochthonous cases of Zika virus or chikungunya have been reported. In 2012, Uruguay certified the elimination of triatoma infestans as a public health problem in three departments where populations of the vector remained (Colonia, Rivera, and Tacuarembó). Vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi has been interrupted since 1997.
The current vaccination schedule includes 13 vaccines for 15 vaccine preventable diseases. The program is universal, free, and compulsory, and coverage of nearly 96% has led to a notable reduction in the incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases. Already several years have passed without new cases of measles or rubella. In 2014, there was a single tetanus case; diphtheria has been absent since 1975. Hepatitis B was reduced by including it in the certified vaccination schedule in 1999. In 2012, whooping cough was a significant problem, with 588 cases (18.14 per 100,000 inhabitants), and 213 were reported in 2014, for a rate of 6.2 per 100,000 inhabitants (). Since 1987, the Honorary Commission for the Campaign against Tuberculosis and Prevalent Diseases (CHLA-EP) has been operationally responsible for the National Vaccination Plan.
Regarding zoonoses, the last case of human rabies reported was in 1966, and the last case of canine rabies was in 1983. In addition, the country was recognized as free of canine rabies V1 and V2 in the recommendations of the tenth and thirteenth Meetings of Directors of the Rabies Programs of the Americas (REDIPRA X and XIII). In 2014, hantavirus infection and leptospirosis were endemic, with an incidence of 0.6 and 4.9 per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively (). In the same year, three cases of brucellosis were reported, for an incidence of 0.1 per 100,000 inhabitants, while cystic echinococcosis was endemic in rural areas, small towns, and socioeconomically critical areas.
In 2016, an international evaluation commission, whose technical secretariat was the PAHO Pan American Center for Foot and Mouth Disease (PANAFTOSA), stated that “no control program in the world has approached elimination phases as has the program implemented in Uruguay.”
Among neglected diseases, leprosy was successfully eliminated at both the national and subnational levels in 2002. In 2015, prevalence was five cases (). Ascariasis and trichuriasis may be endemic in periurban and urban populations with UBNs. Ancylostomiasis has not been reported in the country.
In 2014, a total of 852 cases of tuberculosis were reported (25 cases per 100,000 inhabitants). The rate of therapeutic success was 74.3% in 2015, below the 85% target proposed by WHO (). The current incidence places the country in a control stage of the endemic disease, though the objective of eliminating it as health problem remains distant. In 2014, the Strategy for Approaching Tuberculosis in Large Cities was implemented in Montevideo, since figures in that department are significantly higher than the national average. The tuberculosis program is part of the CHLA-EP framework.
Actions at the national level have kept the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the general population low. In 2014, the rate of new diagnoses reported was 30 per 100,000 inhabitants (). Although the antiretroviral therapy strategy (ARVT) was implemented early on, it has not had a significant impact on mortality from AIDS, which, between 2000 and 2014, rose from 4 per 100,000 inhabitants to 5.3 per 100,000 inhabitants. Problems identified in dealing with the disease include access to HIV diagnosis, stigma and discrimination as obstacles to accessing health services, coverage of, and adherence to, ARVT, and monitoring of patients in treatment. As a result of these factors, approximately 30% of people with HIV remain undiagnosed, while late diagnoses account for more than 40% ().
Sexual contact continues to be the most frequent form of transmission for both sexes. In 2012, the male/female ratio for new diagnoses was 1.7, slightly higher than for the preceding years. Of reported HIV cases, 73% are in the 15 to 44 age group (). A project was launched in 2012, known as “Toward social inclusion and universal access to the prevention and comprehensive care for HIV/AIDS in Uruguay’s most vulnerable populations.”
In terms of emerging diseases, in 2015, the department of Salto in the northwestern part of the country was the site of the first diagnosed case of canine visceral leishmaniosis. This has led to an intense intersectoral and interinstitutional campaign to control the disease. In 2010, the Lutzomya longipalpis vector had already been detected in the department of Salto, and in the city of Bella Unión in the department of Artigas. No human cases of visceral leishmaniosis have been reported.
Noncommunicable chronic diseases
In 2005 and 2013, the percentages of hospital discharges involving cardiovascular disease were 12.29% and 8.27%, respectively. In 2013, the highest percentage of hospitalized cardiovascular disease cases involved ischemic heart disease (23.81%) and cerebrovascular disease (16.66%) (). Important work is currently being carried out on risk factors, early diagnosis, proper referral, and timely administration of appropriate medication.
In 2007-2011, the three highest rates of incidence of malignant neoplasms in women were for breast cancer (73.1 cases per 100,000 inhabitants), colorectal cancer (27.28 cases per 100,000), and cervical cancer (15.69 per 100,000), while in men they were prostate cancer (61.68 per 100,000), lung cancer (47.93 per 100,000), and colorectal cancer (38.07 per 100,000) (). According to the National Cancer Registry (RNC), aggregate mortality rates standardized by age for all locations decreased for both sexes by nearly 0.5% per year in the 1990-2012 period, due to declining lung cancer mortality (especially in men) and the decline of uterine cancer and breast cancer in women ().
The prevalence of diabetes in the population between the ages of 25 and 64 was 7.6% in 2015, and although that figure exceeds the prevalence reported in 2006, there was not a significant increase, nor was there a significant difference between the sexes ().
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the population between the ages of 25 and 64 was 64.9% in 2013 versus 56.6% in 2006 (). Height-for-age deficiencies were present in 5% of girls and boys in the 0- to 3-year-old age group. Values close to 6.7% were seen in poor households, with a value of 3.8% in households above the poverty line. Among children under the age of two, 9.6% exhibited overweight or obesity, while among children ages 2 to 4 the figure was 11.3% (). According to the National Survey of Nutritional Status, Feeding Practices, and Anemia (2011), the overall prevalence of anemia in children ages 6 to 23 months was 31.5%. Prevalence was higher for: children with low height for age; children whose mothers were under the age of 20; children whose mothers had less than six years of schooling; cases where gestation had been less than 37 weeks; children between the ages of 6 and 11 months; cases where the health care services accessed were in the interior of the country; and children from households in the low-income quintiles (37% in quintile 1, 39% in quintile 2, and 12% in quintile 5) ().
Accidents and Violence
In 2015, 23,267 traffic accidents were reported, with 506 deaths and 30,116 persons injured. In 2010, mortality was 16.6 per 100,000 inhabitants; in 2015 the figure was 14.6 per 100,000 (). Evaluation of the 2010-2015 period shows that Uruguay is meeting the goals established for road safety best practices and has begun a process of reducing traffic accident mortality.
In 2015, mortality from homicides was 8.3 per 100,000 inhabitants, of which 37% were associated with criminal activity, 19% with robbery, 18% with family violence, 11% with fights, and 6% with other causes. For 10% of the deaths, the causes were unknown.
In the 2005-2011 period, complaints of rape fluctuated around 6.5 per 100,000 inhabitants. In the three following years, this figure grew significantly, with values between 7.5 and 8.5 per 100,000 inhabitants (). In 2013, nearly 7 out of every 10 women reported having experienced gender violence, with those most affected being younger women, women who claimed African ancestry, and those living in the southeast region of the country (). Complaints rose almost 400% between 2005 (5,612 complaints) and 2013 (26,086 complaints) ().
In 2014, there were 601 suicides, with rates of 26.0 per 100,000 in men and 6.8 per 100,000 in women, revealing a risk almost four times greater for men than for women (). Of these cases, 64% occurred in the interior of the country. In 2011-2015, the National Suicide Prevention Plan, called “A commitment to life,” was in effect. This is in line with the proposed strategy for 2016-2020. Legislation is being formulated to update mental health law in accordance with international and regional human rights instruments, and through draft legislation entitled “Mental Health from a human rights perspective in the framework of the Integrated National Health System.” A Mental Health Services Plan has also been implemented.
Other Health Problems
According to the national survey conducted in 2010-2011, the prevalence of caries, measured as an average on the DMFT index, was 4.15 for young people, 15.2 for adults, and 24.1 for older persons.
Risk and Protective Factors
Policy and action based on tobacco control law 18,256 (2008), which incorporates the measures set forth in the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, have proved effective. In the population between the ages of 25 and 64, the prevalence of daily smokers declined from 32.7% in 2006 to 28.8% in 2013 (), a reduction of 11.9%. Among young people between the ages of 13 and 17 who were in school, prevalence dropped from 30.2% in 2003 to 9.2% in 2014 (), representing a 69.5% decline.
Nearly 230,000 Uruguayans have problems with alcohol abuse. The average initial age of drinking is 12.8 years. It is estimated that only 10% of problematic alcohol users have sought professional assistance at specialized centers ().
Regarding illegal drug use, Among the substances that the United Nations considers prohibited or controlled, cannabis is the drug with the highest prevalence of use in Uruguay. In 2014, the annual prevalence of cannabis use in the population between the ages of 13 and 17 exceeded the figure for tobacco use (17% versus 15.5%) (). In 2013, Uruguay began an innovative process designed to establish a managed cannabis market, with a public health and human rights focus, with implications at many different levels.
In the Uruguayan population between the ages of 25 and 64, 22.8% do not engage in physical activity. Among students between the ages of 13 and 15, 42.6% of males and 17.1% of females had an acceptable level of physical activity (). The 2013 surveys showed an improvement in levels of physical activity, although marked sedentary behavior persists in both groups. Physical activity is being promoted in Uruguay through an intersectoral approach, using various strategies in different environments (educational, community, workplace). Many of these strategies combine physical activity with an emphasis on healthy diet.
As mentioned earlier, the Ministry of Health has established National Health Objectives for the year 2020. The first objective aims to improve the health status of the population by promoting healthy lifestyles and environments, and by diminishing risk factors. The second aims to reduce the burden of premature and avoidable morbidity and mortality by reducing early mortality from cancer and cardiovascular disease, the prevalence of hypertension, chronic complications from diabetes, and mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and HIV/AIDS. It also aims to reduce neonatal infant mortality and morbidity by affecting the determinants of prematurity, as well by reducing the incidence of suicide and the morbidity and mortality associated with gender violence. The third objective aims to improve the quality of health care throughout the life cycle through actions to reduce adolescent pregnancy, provide adequate support for parenthood in that group, humanize institutional childbirth, and reduce the rate of cesarean sections. In regard to the care of persons with disabilities and their access to health services and programs, it aims to improve access to health services, including rehabilitation services, at the three care levels and at the various stages of the life cycle. The National Care System will be responsible for ensuring the health care required by people with dependencies in everyday life (those with disabilities, and vulnerable older persons).
The safety and quality of health care, as part of the institutional culture, is the target of the fourth strategic objective. Progress in this regard will require developing standards and best practices by area, and by implementing a policy on safe behavior, with strategies to measure and evaluate the quality of care so that improvements can be ongoing. Lastly, efforts are under way to develop a patient-centered health care system (fifth objective), so that people have a positive experience of health care. This will strengthen and deepen the connection between doctor and patient, and between the health team and users, increasing response capacity at the primary care level, which is to be conceived as an integrated network of health services.
Major achievements and challenges
The incorporation of groups that were not part of FONASA in 2016 (the military, police officers, municipal personnel, and people without formal employment covered by the ASSE) constitutes a fundamental challenge, both for the financial sustainability of the insurance and for realizing the guiding principles of the Integrated National Health System.
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1. Growth retardation, defined as values less than two standard deviations (SDs) of the height distribution in children of the same age, according to the standard set by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2006).
2. The DMFT index reflects both present and past cases, since it takes account of teeth with injuries from caries as well as previously treated cases. The figure is derived from the sum of decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth, including prescribed extractions, among all examined individuals.