Integrated Disease Management
Several organizational models for CNCD management have been proposed and implemented internationally. Perhaps the best known and most influential is the Chronic Care Model (CCM; see Figure 1), which focuses on linking informed, activated patients with proactive and prepared health care teams. According to the CCM, this requires an appropriately organized health system linked with necessary resources in the broader community. A number of countries have implemented (adopted or adapted) the CCM. In 2002, WHO produced an expanded version of the model—the Innovative Care for Chronic Conditions (ICCC) Framework, which gives greater emphasis to community and policy aspects of improving health care for chronic disease. Other related models are being used to guide the provision of CNCD care within certain countries.