The report shows evidence of the existing relationship between violence and transmission of HIV to women. It details the deciding determinants of violence against women and their relation to the heterosexual transmission of HIV, as well as the possible economic impact of both epidemics. Economic arguments are proposed for the use of strategies of prevention of violence against women as a means to achieve HIV prevention. Testimonies report sexual violence against women at every socioeconomic and cultural level. However, as it is demonstrated in this publication, in many societies, the culture and the lack of effective policies become the principal accomplices of the silence surrounding this serious human development problem.