Health Technology Management
National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety Towards Effective and Sustain Systems Proceedings of an international conference Rabat 1-5 September 2003.
The use of ionizing radiation is widespread and virtually indispensable to modern society for industrial and medical applications. In addition to the many benefits afforded by the beneficial uses of radiation, there are also associated hazards, such as industrial accidents, medical overexposures, disposal of radioactive waste, environmental radioactivity, accidents from ‘orphan’ sources, and malevolent uses. Even where there is a good infrastructure, such as in the United States of America and the European Union, hundreds of sources have been lost. Therefore, it is essential for every country to have adequate infrastructures to ensure the safety and security of all radiation sources, including X ray machines, accelerators, sealed radioactive sources, radioactive waste and environmental radioactivity.
Autor(es): Lloyd, Peter J.
The purpose of this workbook is to set practical exercises that students can work through, responding to specific questions. Above all, the students should feel that they have actually carried out the tasks themselves and will be more confident to teach others and ensure that these exercises continue to be carried out in their respective areas. The topic of this workbook is quality assurance, so all material is designed to assist in the maintenance of the highest quality of work that can be achieved, under the prevailing conditions.
Autor(es): Andreo, P.; Evans, M.D.C.; Hendry, J.H.; Horton, J.L.; Izewska, J.; Mijnheer, B.J.; Mills, J.A.; Olivares, M.; Ortiz López, P.; Parker, W. Patrocinio, H.; Podgorsak, E.B.; Podgorsak, M.B.; Rajan, G.; Seuntjens, J.P.; Shortt, K.R.; Strydom, W.; Sunthralingam, N.; Thwaites, D.I.; Tolli, H.
This book is dedicated to students and teachers involved in programs that train professionals for work in radiation oncology. It provides a compilation of facts on the physics as applied to radiation oncology and as such will be useful to graduate students and residents in medical physics programs, to residents in radiation oncology, and to students in dosimetry and radiotherapy technology programs. The level of understanding of the material covered will, of course, be different for the various student groups; however, the basic language and knowledge for all student groups will be the same.
Radiological Protection of Patients in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy
Autor(es): IAEA, European Commision
The International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy took place in Torremolinos, Málaga, Spain, from 26 to 30 March 200l.
The topics covered in the conference were:
Briefing sessions: Current uses of radiation in medicine, Current levels of radiation dose to patients, History of the use of radiation in medicine and lessons learned from past experience, Benefits and radiological risks from medical exposure, International regulatory climate.
Report of the International Expert Appraisal on Application of International Radiation Protection Standards for members of the public in the area of the Ezeiza Atomic Centre.
This report describes the background information, development and conclusions of an International Expert Appraisal (hereinafter referred to as ‘the IEA’) of the radiological protection of the population surrounding the Ezeiza Atomic Centre (CAE), located in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. The IEA was carried out by relevant organizations in the United Nations systems and competent non-governmental international professional organizations, following a request of the Government of Argentina. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized the IEA in accordance with the functions established in Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, namely to provide for the application of its international safety standards for radiation protection of the public and the environment.
The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) cover the application of ionizing radiation for all practices and interventions and are, therefore, basic and general in nature. Users of radiation sources have to apply these basic requirements to their own particular practices. This requires a degree of ‘interpretation’ by the user, which can result in varying levels of regulatory compliance and inconsistencies between applications of the BSS to similar practices. There would therefore appear to be scope for producing internationally harmonized guidance.
Safety Reports Series No. 39 Applying Radiation Safety Standards in Diagnostic Radiology and Interventional Procedures using X Rays.
The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) establish requirements on the legal persons responsible for designing, running and decommissioning practices involving ionizing radiation. This report is intended to be of assistance to both regulators and users of radiation sources in diagnostic radiology and interventional procedures using X rays in applying the BSS to this practice. Regulators will find it useful for reviewing applications for authorization and for inspection of the practice. Users of radiation in radiology may follow the guidance provided in order to comply with BSS requirements or equivalent national requirements. Experts recruited on IAEA missions to advise on the implementation of the BSS for the practice of diagnostic radiology and interventional procedures using X rays are expected to use this regulatory guidance report rather than their own national regulations and guidance.
The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) cover the application of ionizing radiation for all practices and interventions and are, therefore, basic and general in nature. A number of drafts regulatory guidance publications for the main practices involving the use of ionizing radiation have already been prepared. This guidance is intended for both regulators and users of radiation sources in nuclear medicine. Regulators may use it for reviewing applications for authorization and during the inspection of facilities. Registrants/licensees may wish to follow the guidance in order to comply with BSS requirements or equivalent national regulations. Experts recruited on IAEA missions to advice on the implementation of the BSS for the practice of nuclear medicine are expected to use this regulatory guidance report rather than their own national guidance.
The IAEA’s Statute authorizes the Agency to establish safety standards to protect health and minimize danger to life and property — standards which the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which a State can apply by means of its regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety.A comprehensive body of safety standards under regular review, together with the IAEA’s assistance in their application, has become a key element in a global safety regime. The new standards that have resulted are of a high caliber and reflect best practices in Member States. With the assistance of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its safety standards. Safety standards are only effective, however, if they are properly applied in practice.
Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological emergency. Safety Requirements.
One of the statutory functions of the IAEA is to establish or adopt standards of safety for the protection of health, life and property in the development and application of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, and to provide for the application of these standards to its own operations as well as to assisted operations and, at the request of the parties, to operations under any bilateral or multilateral arrangement, or, at the request of a State, to any of that State’s activities in the field of nuclear energy. Any State wishing to enter into an agreement with the IAEA for its assistance in connection with the sitting, design, construction, commissioning, operation or decommissioning of a nuclear facility or any other activities will be required to follow those parts of the safety standards that pertain to the activities to be covered by the agreement.