Cholera is a disease that responds satisfactorily to medical treatment. The first treatment goal is to replace fluids that have been lost by diarrhea and vomiting. Up to 80% of cases can be treated through early administration of oral rehydration salts (WHO/UNICEF oral rehydration salts standard sachet).
It is recommended to administer liquids intravenously to patients that have lost more than 10- 20 ml/kg/h or patients with severe dehydration. Following the replacement of the initial liquid lost, the best guide for fluid therapy is to record losses and gains in fluids and to adjust administration as appropriate.
The administration of appropriate antibiotics, especially in severe cases, shortens the duration of diarrhea, reduces the volume of hydration fluids necessary, and shortens the time V. cholerae is excreted.
The massive administration of antibiotics is not recommended because it has no effect on the spread of cholera and contributes to the production of bacterial resistance. With appropriate treatment the fatality rate is less than 1%.
In order to provide timely access to treatment, cholera treatment centers should be established in affected populations. These centers should be located at strategic points to maximize the number of affected individuals that can be treated outside of a hospital setting and based on management protocols defined by and agreed to by all parties.
Response plans must provide for coordination between treatment centers, healthcare centers, and levels of care in the communities in which they are located and should include the dissemination of proper hygiene practices and public health measures.