Estimates of homicide mortality in the population
Estimates of homicide mortality by age, sex, country, and years were obtained from the Global Health Estimates 2000-2019 produced by WHO.
Indicators: Deaths, and Years of Life Lost (YLLs) rates due to interpersonal violence per 100 000 population.
Measure: Deaths, YLLs
Unit of measurement: Deats, or Years per 100,000 population
Interpersonal violence is defined as the ‘‘Unlawful death inflicted upon a person with the intent to cause death or serious injury”. This definition contains three elements characterizing the killing of a person as intentional homicide:
1. The killing of a person by another person (objective element);
2. The intent of the perpetrator to kill or seriously injure the victim (subjective element);
3. The unlawfulness of the killing, which means that the law considers the perpetrator liable for the unlawful death (legal element).
This definition states that, for statistical purposes, all deaths corresponding to the three above criteria should be considered as intentional homicides, irrespective of definitions provided by national legislations or practices.
According to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), Interpersonal violence includes the following ICD-10 codes: X85-Y09, Y871.
Method of estimation: The estimates of homicide rates draw on data provided by countries from police, and civil registration and vital statistics systems; data from United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) global studies on homicide; and data from WHO’s Mortality Database. The estimation process used observed death data on homicide, in conjunction with modeling for countries without sufficient data availability or inadequate quality, to compute comparable estimates of homicide rates and numbers across countries.
In several countries, two separate sets of data on intentional homicide are produced, respectively from criminal justice and public health/civil registration systems. When existing, figures from both data sources are reported. Population data are derived from annual estimates produced by the UN Population Division.
Crude death rates were calculated as the total number of victims of intentional homicide (ICD-10 codes: X85-Y09, Y871) recorded in a given year divided by the total population in the same year, multiplied by 100,000. Age-specific death rates were calculated with the same approach by age. Age-standardized death rates were computed by the direct method using the WHO world standard population.
Regional aggregates: Regional and subnational estimates were calculated using national data (number of deaths, or number of YLLs) and population estimates from the UN World Population Prospects, 2019 edition.
Data sources and methods for estimating deaths and mortality are described in the following documents
Preferred data sources: Civil Registration and Vital Statistics (CRVS) systems.